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Question 1:

What is called a password that is the same for each log-on session?

A. “one-time password”

B. “two-time password”

C. static password

D. dynamic password

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 36


Question 2:

In discretionary access environments, which of the following entities is authorized to grant information access to other people?

A. Manager

B. Group Leader

C. Security Manager

D. Data Owner

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: In Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments, the user who creates a file is also considered the owner and has full control over the file including the ability to set permissions for that file. The following answers are incorrect:

Manager is incorrect because in Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments it is the owner/user that is authorized to grant information access to other people group leader. Is incorrect because in Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments it is the owner/user that is authorized to grant information access to other people security manager. Is incorrect because in Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments it is the owner/user that is authorized to grant information access to other people.

IMPORTANT NOTE:

The term Data Owner is also used within Classifications as well. Under the subject of classification the Data Owner is a person from management who has been entrusted with a data set that belongs to the company. For example it could be the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) who is entrusted with all of the financial data for a company. As such the CFO would determine the classification of the financial data and who can access as well. The Data Owner would then tell the Data Custodian (a technical person) what the classification and need to know is on the specific set of data.

The term Data Owner under DAC simply means whoever created the file and as the creator of the file the owner has full access and can grant access to other subjects based on their identity.


Question 3:

Which of the following statements relating to the Bell-LaPadula security model is FALSE (assuming the Strong Star property is not being used)?

A. A subject is not allowed to read up.

B. The *- property restriction can be escaped by temporarily downgrading a high level subject.

C. A subject is not allowed to read down.

D. It is restricted to confidentiality.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: It is not a property of Bell LaPadula model.

The other answers are incorrect because:

A subject is not allowed to read up is a property of the \’simple security rule\’ of Bell LaPadula model.

The *- property restriction can be escaped by temporarily downgrading a high level subject can be escaped by temporarily downgrading a high level subject or by identifying a set of trusted objects which are permitted to violate the *-property

as long as it is not in the middle of an operation.

It is restricted to confidentiality as it is a state machine model that enforces the confidentiality aspects of access control.

Reference: Shon Harris AIO v3 , Chapter-5 : Security Models and Architecture , Page:279


Question 4:

You are a manager for a large international bank and periodically move employees between positions in your department. What is this process called?

A. Job Rotation

B. Separation of Duties

C. Mandatory Rotations

D. Dual Control

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Discussion: If a single employee were permitted to stay in one critical position for an extended period of time without close oversight he or she could carry out fraud undetected.

For this reason it is important to rotate employees between jobs. Another good reason is to get employees experienced on their colleagues\’ jobs. This way, if an employee were for some reason unavailable to work, their position could be

covered.

The following answers are incorrect:

Separation of Duties: This is similar to Job Rotation because critical functions are divided up between employees to avoid and detect fraud. It is incorrect because with Job Rotation, people move between positions to detect fraud or even get

better at each position to provide some resiliency for the organization. Separation of Duties is more a preventative measure.

Mandatory Rotations: This is incorrect because of the terminology. There are terms called Mandatory Vacations and Job Rotation but not mandatory rotations. Be familiar with these terms before trying to pass the exam.

Dual Control: This term describes how a manager would require employees to work together (two or more) on critical actions so that no single employee can cause catastrophic damage. This isn\’t the correct answer but it is very similar to Job

Rotation where an employee rotates between job duties. Dual Control requires employees to work together on critical tasks in hopes of limiting collusion to commit fraud.

The following reference(s) was used to create this question:

Gregg, Michael; Haines, Billy (2012-02-16). CASP: CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner Study Guide Authorized Courseware: Exam CAS-001 (p. 245). Wiley. Kindle Edition.


Question 5:

What is called the act of a user professing an identity to a system, usually in the form of a log-on ID?

A. Authentication

B. Identification

C. Authorization

D. Confidentiality

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: Identification is the act of a user professing an identity to a system, usually in the form of a log-on ID to the system.

Identification is nothing more than claiming you are somebody. You identify yourself when you speak to someone on the phone that you don\’t know, and they ask you who they\’re speaking to. When you say, “I\’m Jason.”, you\’ve just identified yourself.

In the information security world, this is analogous to entering a username. It\’s not analogous to entering a password. Entering a password is a method for verifying that you are who you identified yourself as.

NOTE: The word “professing” used above means: “to say that you are, do, or feel something when other people doubt what you say”. This is exactly what happen when you provide your identifier (identification), you claim to be someone but the system cannot take your word for it, you must further Authenticate to the system to prove who you claim to be.

The following are incorrect answers:

Authentication: is how one proves that they are who they say they are. When you claim to be Jane Smith by logging into a computer system as “jsmith”, it\’s most likely going to ask you for a password. You\’ve claimed to be that person by entering the name into the username field (that\’s the identification part), but now you have to prove that you are really that person.

Many systems use a password for this, which is based on “something you know”, i.e. a secret between you and the system.

Another form of authentication is presenting something you have, such as a driver\’s license, an RSA token, or a smart card.

You can also authenticate via something you are. This is the foundation for biometrics. When you do this, you first identify yourself and then submit a thumb print, a retina scan, or another form of bio-based authentication.

Once you\’ve successfully authenticated, you have now done two things: you\’ve claimed to be someone, and you\’ve proven that you are that person. The only thing that\’s left is for the system to determine what you\’re allowed to do.

Authorization: is what takes place after a person has been both identified and authenticated; it\’s the step determines what a person can then do on the system.

An example in people terms would be someone knocking on your door at night. You say, “Who is it?”, and wait for a response. They say, “It\’s John.” in order to identify themselves. You ask them to back up into the light so you can see them through the peephole. They do so, and you authenticate them based on what they look like (biometric). At that point you decide they can come inside the house.

If they had said they were someone you didn\’t want in your house (identification), and you then verified that it was that person (authentication), the authorization phase would not include access to the inside of the house.

Confidentiality: Is one part of the CIA triad. It prevents sensitive information from reaching the wrong people, while making sure that the right people can in fact get it. A good example is a credit card number while shopping online, the merchant needs it to clear the transaction but you do not want your information exposed over the network, you would use a secure link such as SSL, TLS, or some tunneling tool to protect the information from prying eyes between point A and point B. Data encryption is a common method of ensuring confidentiality.

The other parts of the CIA triad are listed below:

Integrity involves maintaining the consistency, accuracy, and trustworthiness of data over its entire life cycle. Data must not be changed in transit, and steps must be taken to ensure that data cannot be altered by unauthorized people (for example, in a breach of confidentiality). In addition, some means must be in place to detect any changes in data that might occur as a result of non-human-caused events such as an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) or server crash. If an unexpected change occurs, a backup copy must be available to restore the affected data to its correct state.

Availability is best ensured by rigorously maintaining all hardware, performing hardware repairs immediately when needed, providing a certain measure of redundancy and failover, providing adequate communications bandwidth and preventing the occurrence of bottlenecks, implementing emergency backup power systems, keeping current with all necessary system upgrades, and guarding against malicious actions such as denial-of- service (DoS) attacks.

Reference used for this question:

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Confidentiality-integrity-and-availability-CIA

http://www.danielmiessler.com/blog/security-identification-authentication-and-authorization

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/profess

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 36


CISSP VCE DumpsCISSP Study GuideCISSP Exam Questions

Question 6:

Which access control model was proposed for enforcing access control in government and military applications?

A. Bell-LaPadula model

B. Biba model

C. Sutherland model

D. Brewer-Nash model

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The Bell-LaPadula model, mostly concerned with confidentiality, was proposed for enforcing access control in government and military applications. It supports mandatory access control by determining the access rights from the

security levels associated with subjects and objects. It also supports discretionary access control by checking access rights from an access matrix. The Biba model, introduced in 1977, the Sutherland model, published in 1986, and the

Brewer-Nash model, published in 1989, are concerned with integrity.

Source: ANDRESS, Mandy, Exam Cram CISSP, Coriolis, 2001, Chapter 2: Access Control Systems and Methodology (page 11).


Question 7:

Which of the following answers best describes the type of penetration testing where the analyst has full knowledge of the network on which he is going to perform his test?

A. White-Box Penetration Testing

B. Black-Box Pen Testing

C. Penetration Testing

D. Gray-Box Pen Testing

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: In general there are three ways a pen tester can test a target system.

White-Box: The tester has full access and is testing from inside the system.

Gray-Box: The tester has some knowledge of the system he\’s testing.

Black-Box: The tester has no knowledge of the system. Each of these forms of testing has different benefits and can test different aspects of the system from different approaches.

The following answers are incorrect:

Black-Box Pen Testing: This is where no prior knowledge is given about the target network. Only a domain name or business name may be given to the analyst.

Penetration Testing: This is half correct but more specifically it is white-box testing because the tester has full access.

Gray-Box Pen Testing: This answer is not right because Gray-Box testing you are given a little information about the target network.

The following reference(s) was used to create this question:

2013 Official Security Curriculum.

and

tester is provided no information about the target\’s network or environment. The tester is simply left to his abilities

Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 4742-4743). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.


Question 8:

Which of the following best describes an exploit?

A. An intentional hidden message or feature in an object such as a piece of software or a movie.

B. A chunk of data, or sequence of commands that take advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software

C. An anomalous condition where a process attempts to store data beyond the boundaries of a fixed-length buffer

D. A condition where a program (either an application or part of the operating system) stops performing its expected function and also stops responding to other parts of the system

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: The following answers are incorrect:

An intentional hidden message or feature in an object such as a piece of software or a movie.

This is the definition of an “Easter Egg” which is code within code. A good example of this was a small flight simulator that was hidden within Microsoft Excel. If you know which cell to go to on your spreadsheet and the special code to type in

that cell, you were able to run the flight simulator.

An anomalous condition where a process attempts to store data beyond the boundaries of a fixed-length buffer

This is the definition of a “Buffer Overflow”. Many pieces of exploit code may contain some buffer overflow code but considering all the choices presented this was not the best choice. It is one of the vulnerability that the exploit would take care

of if no data input validation is taking place within the software that you are targeting. A condition where a program (either an application or part of the operating system) stops performing its expected function and also stops responding to

other parts of the system This is the definition of a “System Crash”. Such behavior might be the result of exploit code being launched against the target.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

and

The official CEH courseware Version 6 Module 1

The Official CEH Courseware Version 7 Module 1


Question 9:

Access control is the collection of mechanisms that permits managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use, and content of a system. It does not permit management to:

A. specify what users can do

B. specify which resources they can access

C. specify how to restrain hackers

D. specify what operations they can perform on a system.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Access control is the collection of mechanisms that permits managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use, and content of a system. It permits management to specify what users can do, which resources they can access, and what operations they can perform on a system. Specifying HOW to restrain hackers is not directly linked to access control. Source: DUPUIS, Clement, Access Control Systems and Methodology, Version 1, May 2002, CISSP Open Study Group Study Guide for Domain 1, Page 12


Question 10:

Which one of the following factors is NOT one on which Authentication is based?

A. Type 1 Something you know, such as a PIN or password

B. Type 2 Something you have, such as an ATM card or smart card

C. Type 3 Something you are (based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits), such as a fingerprint or retina scan

D. Type 4 Something you are, such as a system administrator or security administrator

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Authentication is based on the following three factor types:

Type 1 Something you know, such as a PIN or password Type 2 Something you have, such as an ATM card or smart card Type 3 Something you are (Unique physical characteristic), such as a fingerprint or retina scan

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 36

Also: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 4: Access Control (pages 132-133).


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