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Question 1:

What is called the verification that the user\’s claimed identity is valid and is usually implemented through a user password at log-on time?

A. Authentication

B. Identification

C. Integrity

D. Confidentiality

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Authentication is verification that the user\’s claimed identity is valid and is usually implemented through a user password at log-on time. Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 36


Question 2:

A central authority determines what subjects can have access to certain objects based on the organizational security policy is called:

A. Mandatory Access Control

B. Discretionary Access Control

C. Non-Discretionary Access Control

D. Rule-based Access control

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: A central authority determines what subjects can have access to certain objects based on the organizational security policy.

The key focal point of this question is the \’central authority\’ that determines access rights.

Cecilia one of the quiz user has sent me feedback informing me that NIST defines MAC as:

“MAC Policy means that Access Control Policy Decisions are made by a CENTRAL AUTHORITY. Which seems to indicate there could be two good answers to this question.

However if you read the NISTR document mentioned in the references below, it is also mentioned that: MAC is the most mentioned NDAC policy. So MAC is a form of NDAC policy.

Within the same document it is also mentioned: “In general, all access control policies other than DAC are grouped in the category of non- discretionary access control (NDAC). As the name implies, policies in this category have rules that are

not established at the discretion of the user. Non-discretionary policies establish controls that cannot be changed by users, but only through administrative action.”

Under NDAC you have two choices:

Rule Based Access control and Role Base Access Control

MAC is implemented using RULES which makes it fall under RBAC which is a form of NDAC. It is a subset of NDAC.

This question is representative of what you can expect on the real exam where you have more than once choice that seems to be right. However, you have to look closely if one of the choices would be higher level or if one of the choice falls

under one of the other choice. In this case NDAC is a better choice because MAC is falling under NDAC through the use of Rule Based Access Control.

The following are incorrect answers:

MANDATORY ACCESS CONTROL

In Mandatory Access Control the labels of the object and the clearance of the subject determines access rights, not a central authority. Although a central authority (Better known as the Data Owner) assigns the label to the object, the system

does the determination of access rights automatically by comparing the Object label with the Subject clearance. The subject clearance MUST dominate (be equal or higher) than the object being accessed.

The need for a MAC mechanism arises when the security policy of a system dictates that:

1 Protection decisions must not be decided by the object owner. 2 The system must enforce the protection decisions (i.e., the system enforces the security policy over the wishes or intentions of the object owner).

Usually a labeling mechanism and a set of interfaces are used to determine access based on the MAC policy; for example, a user who is running a process at the Secret classification should not be allowed to read a file with a label of Top

Secret. This is known as the “simple security rule,” or “no read up.”

Conversely, a user who is running a process with a label of Secret should not be allowed to write to a file with a label of Confidential. This rule is called the “*-property” (pronounced “star property”) or “no write down.” The *-property is required

to maintain system security in an automated environment.

DISCRETIONARY ACCESS CONTROL

In Discretionary Access Control the rights are determined by many different entities, each of the persons who have created files and they are the owner of that file, not one central authority.

DAC leaves a certain amount of access control to the discretion of the object\’s owner or anyone else who is authorized to control the object\’s access. For example, it is generally used to limit a user\’s access to a file; it is the owner of the file

who controls other users\’ accesses to the file. Only those users specified by the owner may have some combination of read, write, execute, and other permissions to the file.

DAC policy tends to be very flexible and is widely used in the commercial and government sectors. However, DAC is known to be inherently weak for two reasons:

First, granting read access is transitive; for example, when Ann grants Bob read access to a file, nothing stops Bob from copying the contents of Ann\’s file to an object that Bob controls. Bob may now grant any other user access to the copy of

Ann\’s file without Ann\’s knowledge.

Second, DAC policy is vulnerable to Trojan horse attacks. Because programs inherit the identity of the invoking user, Bob may, for example, write a program for Ann that, on the surface, performs some useful function, while at the same time

destroys the contents of Ann\’s files. When investigating the problem, the audit files would indicate that Ann destroyed her own files. Thus, formally, the drawbacks of DAC are as follows:

?Discretionary Access Control (DAC) Information can be copied from one object to another; therefore, there is no real assurance on the flow of information in a system. ?No restrictions apply to the usage of information when the user has

received it. ?The privileges for accessing objects are decided by the owner of the object, rather than through a system-wide policy that reflects the organization\’s security requirements.

ACLs and owner/group/other access control mechanisms are by far the most common mechanism for implementing DAC policies. Other mechanisms, even though not designed with DAC in mind, may have the capabilities to implement a

DAC policy.

RULE BASED ACCESS CONTROL

In Rule-based Access Control a central authority could in fact determine what subjects can have access when assigning the rules for access. However, the rules actually determine the access and so this is not the most correct answer.

RuBAC (as opposed to RBAC, role-based access control) allow users to access systems and information based on pre determined and configured rules. It is important to note that there is no commonly understood definition or formally

defined standard for rule-based access control as there is for DAC, MAC, and RBAC. “Rule-based access” is a generic term applied to systems that allow some form of organization-defined rules, and therefore rule-based access control

encompasses a broad range of systems. RuBAC may in fact be combined with other models, particularly RBAC or DAC. A RuBAC system intercepts every access request and compares the rules with the rights of the user to make an access

decision. Most of the rule-based access control relies on a security label system, which dynamically composes a set of rules defined by a security policy. Security labels are attached to all objects, including files, directories, and devices.

Sometime roles to subjects (based on their attributes) are assigned as well. RuBAC meets the business needs as well as the technical needs of controlling service access. It allows business rules to be applied to access control–for example,

customers who have overdue balances may be denied service access. As a mechanism for MAC, rules of RuBAC cannot be changed by users. The rules can be established by any attributes of a system related to the users such as domain,

host, protocol, network, or IP addresses. For example, suppose that a user wants to access an object in another network on the other side of a router. The router employs RuBAC with the rule composed by the network addresses, domain,

and protocol to decide whether or not the user can be granted access. If employees change their roles within the organization, their existing authentication credentials remain in effect and do not need to be re configured. Using rules in

conjunction with roles adds greater flexibility because rules can be applied to people as well as to devices. Rule-based access control can be combined with role-based access control, such that the role of a user is one of the attributes in rule

setting. Some provisions of access control systems have rule- based policy engines in addition to a role-based policy engine and certain implemented dynamic policies [Des03]. For example, suppose that two of the primary types of software

users are product engineers and quality engineers. Both groups usually have access to the same data, but they have different roles to perform in relation to the data and the application\’s function. In addition, individuals within each group have

different job responsibilities that may be identified using several types of attributes such as developing programs and testing areas. Thus, the access decisions can be made in real time by a scripted policy that regulates the access between

the groups of product engineers and quality engineers, and each individual within these groups. Rules can either replace or complement role-based access control. However, the creation of rules and security policies is also a complex

process, so each organization will need to strike the appropriate balance.

References used for this question:

http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistir/7316/NISTIR-7316pdf

And

AIO v3 p162-167 and OIG (2007) p.186-191

Also

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 33


Question 3:

Which of the following is not a two-factor authentication mechanism?

A. Something you have and something you know.

B. Something you do and a password.

C. A smartcard and something you are.

D. Something you know and a password.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Something you know and a password fits within only one of the three ways authentication could be done. A password is an example of something you know, thereby something you know and a password does not constitute a

two-factor authentication as both are in the same category of factors.

A two-factor (strong) authentication relies on two different kinds of authentication factors out of a list of three possible choice:

something you know (e.g. a PIN or password),

something you have (e.g. a smart card, token, magnetic card), something you are is mostly Biometrics (e.g. a fingerprint) or something you do (e.g.

signature dynamics).

TIP FROM CLEMENT:

On the real exam you can expect to see synonyms and sometimes sub-categories under the main categories. People are familiar with Pin, Passphrase, Password as subset of Something you know.

However, when people see choices such as Something you do or Something you are they immediately get confused and they do not think of them as subset of Biometrics where you have Biometric implementation based on behavior and

physilogical attributes. So something you do falls under the Something you are category as a subset. Something your do would be signing your name or typing text on your keyboard for example.

Strong authentication is simply when you make use of two factors that are within two different categories.

Reference(s) used for this question:

Shon Harris, CISSP All In One, Fifth Edition, pages 158-159


Question 4:

Access Control techniques do not include which of the following choices?

A. Relevant Access Controls

B. Discretionary Access Control

C. Mandatory Access Control

D. Lattice Based Access Control

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Access Control Techniques Discretionary Access Control Mandatory Access Control Lattice Based Access Control Rule-Based Access Control Role-Based Access Control Source: DUPUIS, Clement, Access Control Systems and Methodology, Version 1, May 2002, CISSP Open Study Group Study Guide for Domain 1, Page 13


Question 5:

Kerberos is vulnerable to replay in which of the following circumstances?

A. When a private key is compromised within an allotted time window.

B. When a public key is compromised within an allotted time window.

C. When a ticket is compromised within an allotted time window.

D. When the KSD is compromised within an allotted time window.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Replay can be accomplished on Kerberos if the compromised tickets are used within an allotted time window.

The security depends on careful implementation:enforcing limited lifetimes for authentication credentials minimizes the threat of of replayed credentials, the KDC must be physically secured, and it should be hardened, not permitting any nonkerberos activities.

Reference:

Official ISC2 Guide to the CISSP, 2007 Edition, page 184

also see:

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 42


CISSP Practice TestCISSP Study GuideCISSP Braindumps

Question 6:

What is called the use of technologies such as fingerprint, retina, and iris scans to authenticate the individuals requesting access to resources?

A. Micrometrics

B. Macrometrics

C. Biometrics

D. MicroBiometrics

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 35


Question 7:

Which of the following is required in order to provide accountability?

A. Authentication

B. Integrity

C. Confidentiality

D. Audit trails

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Accountability can actually be seen in two different ways:

1) Although audit trails are also needed for accountability, no user can be accountable for their actions unless properly authenticated.

2) Accountability is another facet of access control. Individuals on a system are responsible for their actions. This accountability property enables system activities to be traced to the proper individuals. Accountability is supported by audit trails

that record events on the system and network. Audit trails can be used for intrusion detection and for the reconstruction of past events. Monitoring individual activities, such as keystroke monitoring, should be accomplished in accordance with

the company policy and appropriate laws. Banners at the log-on time should notify the user of any monitoring that is being conducted. The point is that unless you employ an appropriate auditing mechanism, you don\’t have accountability.

Authorization only gives a user certain permissions on the network. Accountability is far more complex because it also includes intrusion detection, unauthorized actions by both unauthorized users and authorized users, and system faults.

The audit trail provides the proof that unauthorized modifications by both authorized and unauthorized users took place. No proof, No accountability.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, Page 50

The Shon Harris AIO book, 4th Edition, on Page 243 also states:

Auditing Capabilities ensures users are accountable for their actions, verify that the secutiy policies are enforced,

and can be used as investigation tools. Accountability is tracked by recording user, system, and application activities.

This recording is done through auditing functions and mechanisms within an operating sytem or application.

Audit trail contain information about operating System activities, application events, and user actions.


Question 8:

Which one of the following authentication mechanisms creates a problem for mobile users?

A. Mechanisms based on IP addresses

B. Mechanism with reusable passwords

C. One-time password mechanism.

D. Challenge response mechanism.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Anything based on a fixed IP address would be a problem for mobile users because their location and its associated IP address can change from one time to the next. Many providers will assign a new IP every time the device

would be restarted. For example an insurance adjuster using a laptop to file claims online. He goes to a different client each time and the address changes every time he connects to the ISP.

NOTE FROM CLEMENT:

The term MOBILE in this case is synonymous with Road Warriors where a user is constantly traveling and changing location. With smartphone today that may not be an issue but it would be an issue for laptops or WIFI tablets. Within a carrier

network the IP will tend to be the same and would change rarely. So this question is more applicable to devices that are not cellular devices but in some cases this issue could affect cellular devices as well.

The following answers are incorrect:

Mechanism with reusable password. This is incorrect because reusable password mechanism would not present a problem for mobile users. They are the least secure and change only at specific interval one-time password mechanism. This

is incorrect because a one-time password mechanism would not present a problem for mobile users. Many are based on a clock and not on the IP address of the user Challenge response mechanism. This is incorrect because challenge

response mechanism would not present a problem for mobile users.


Question 9:

External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is:

A. in-consistent with the real world.

B. remains consistant when sent from one system to another.

C. consistent with the logical world.

D. consistent with the real world.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is consistent with the real world.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, page 33


Question 10:

Which of the following represents the columns of the table in a relational database?

A. attributes

B. relation

C. record retention

D. records or tuples

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The rows of the table represent records or tuples and the columns of the table represent the attributes.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 45


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