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What can be defined as a table of subjects and objects indicating what actions individual subjects can take upon individual objects?
A. A capacity table
B. An access control list
C. An access control matrix
D. A capability table
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The matrix lists the users, groups and roles down the left side and the resources and functions across the top. The cells of the matrix can either indicate that access is allowed or indicate the type of access. CBK pp 317 – 318
AIO3, p. 169 describes it as a table if subjects and objects specifying the access rights a certain subject possesses pertaining to specific objects.
In either case, the matrix is a way of analyzing the access control needed by a population of subjects to a population of objects. This access control can be applied using rules, ACL\’s, capability tables, etc.
“A capacity table” is incorrect.
This answer is a trap for the unwary — it sounds a little like “capability table” but is just there to distract you.
“An access control list” is incorrect.
“It [ACL] specifies a list of users [subjects] who are allowed access to each object” CBK, p. 188 Access control lists (ACL) could be used to implement the rules identified by an access control matrix but is different from the matrix itself.
“A capability table” is incorrect.
“Capability tables are used to track, manage and apply controls based on the object and rights, or capabilities of a subject. For example, a table identifies the object, specifies access rights allowed for a subject, and permits access based on
the user\’s posession of a capability (or ticket) for the object.” CBK, pp. 191-192 To put it another way, as noted in AIO3 on p. 169, “A capabiltiy table is different from an ACL because the subject is bound to the capability table, whereas the
object is bound to the ACL.” Again, a capability table could be used to implement the rules identified by an access control matrix but is different from the matrix itself.
CBK pp. 191-192, 317-318
AIO3, p. 169
Most access violations are:
B. Caused by internal hackers
C. Caused by external hackers
D. Related to Internet
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The most likely source of exposure is from the uninformed, accidental or unknowing person, although the greatest impact may be from those with malicious or fraudulent intent. Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 4: Protection of Information Assets (page 192).
You wish to make use of “port knocking” technologies. How can you BEST explain this?
A. Port knocking is where the client will attempt to connect to a predefined set of ports to identify him as an authorized client.
B. Port knocking is where the user calls the server operator to have him start the service he wants to connect to.
C. This is where all the ports are open on the server and the connecting client scans the open port to which he wants to connect to see if it\’s open and running.
D. Port knocking is where the port sequence is encrypted with 3DES and only the server has the other key to decrypt the port sequence.
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The other answers are incorrect
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:
Which of the following would describe a type of biometric error refers to as false rejection rate?
A. Type I error
B. Type II error
C. Type III error
D. CER error
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: When a biometric system rejects an authorized individual, it is called a Type I error.
When a system accepts impostors who should be rejected (false positive), it is called a Type II error.
The Crossover Error Rate (CER), stated in a percentage, represents the point at which false rejection (Type I) rate equals the false acceptance (Type II) rate. Type III error is not defined and simply a distracter in this case. Some people get
trick on this one because they are thinking about Authentication Factors where Biometric is a type III authentication factor.
Beware not to mix authentication factor with biometric errors. The 3 authentication factors are:
Type 1 Something you know
Type 2 Something you have
Type 3 Something you are
Reference(s) used for this question:
HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 4: Access Control (page 128).
External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is:
A. in-consistent with the real world.
B. remains consistant when sent from one system to another.
C. consistent with the logical world.
D. consistent with the real world.
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is consistent with the real world.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, page 33
The end result of implementing the principle of least privilege means which of the following?
A. Users would get access to only the info for which they have a need to know
B. Users can access all systems.
C. Users get new privileges added when they change positions.
D. Authorization creep.
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The principle of least privilege refers to allowing users to have only the access they need and not anything more. Thus, certain users may have no need to access any of the files on specific systems. The following answers are incorrect:
Users can access all systems. Although the principle of least privilege limits what access and systems users have authorization to, not all users would have a need to know to access all of the systems. The best answer is still Users would get access to only the info for which they have a need to know as some of the users may not have a need to access a system.
Users get new privileges when they change positions. Although true that a user may indeed require new privileges, this is not a given fact and in actuality a user may require less privileges for a new position. The principle of least privilege would require that the rights required for the position be closely evaluated and where possible rights revoked.
Authorization creep. Authorization creep occurs when users are given additional rights with new positions and responsibilities. The principle of least privilege should actually prevent authorization creep.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:
ISC2 OIG 2007 p.101,123
Shon Harris AIO v3 p148, 902-903
A database view is the results of which of the following operations?
A. Join and Select.
B. Join, Insert, and Project.
C. Join, Project, and Create.
D. Join, Project, and Select.
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: 1 The formal description of how a relational database operates.
2 The mathematics which underpin SQL operations.
A number of operations can be performed in relational algebra to build relations and operate on the data.
Five operations are primitives (Select, Project, Union, Difference and Product) and the other operations can be defined in terms of those five. A View is defined from the operations of Join, Project, and Select.
For the purpose of the exam you must remember the following terms from relational algebra and their SQL equivalent:
Tuple = Row, Entry
Attribute = Column
Relation or Based relation = Table
See the extract below from the ISC2 book:
Each table, or relation, in the relational model consists of a set of attributes and a set of tuples (rows) or entries in the table. Attributes correspond to a column in a table. Attributes are unordered left to right, and thus are referenced by name
and not by position. All data values in the relational model are atomic. Atomic values mean that at every row/column position in every table there is always exactly one data value and never a set of values. There are no links or pointers
connecting tables; thus, the representation of relationships is contained as data in another table.
A tuple of a table corresponds to a row in the table. Tuples are unordered top to bottom because a relation is a mathematical set and not a list. Also, because tuples are based on tables that are mathematical sets, there are no duplicate tuples
in a table (sets in mathematics by definition do not include duplicate elements).
The primary key is an attribute or set of attributes that uniquely identifies a specific instance of an entity. Each table in a database must have a primary key that is unique to that table.
It is a subset of the candidate key.
Reference used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 12262-12269). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 46 and
http://db.grussell.org/slides/rel algebra 1ppt
SQL offers three classes of operators: select, project, and join. The select operator serves to shrink the table vertically by eliminating unwanted rows (tuples).
The project operator serves to shrink the table horizontally by removing unwanted columns (attributes).
And the join operator allows the dynamic linking of two tables that share a common column value. The join operation is achieved by stating the selection criteria for two tables and equating them with their common columns.
Most commercial implementations of SQL do not support a project operation, instead projections are achieved by specifying the columns desired in the output. This is why the Project operator is not well known as it is fading away from most
In the context of Biometric authentication, what is a quick way to compare the accuracy of devices. In general, the device that have the lowest value would be the most accurate. Which of the following would be used to compare accuracy of devices?
A. the CER is used.
B. the FRR is used
C. the FAR is used
D. The FER is used
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER): the rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. The value of the EER can be easily obtained from the ROC curve. The EER is a quick way to compare the accuracy of devices with different ROC curves. In general, the device with the lowest EER is most accurate. In the context of Biometric Authentication almost all types of detection permit a system\’s sensitivity to be increased or decreased during an inspection process. If the system\’s sensitivity is increased, such as in an airport metal detector, the system becomes increasingly selective and has a higher False Reject Rate (FRR). Conversely, if the sensitivity is decreased, the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) will increase. Thus, to have a valid measure of the system performance, the CrossOver Error Rate (CER) is used.
The following are used as performance metrics for biometric systems:
false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR): the probability that the system incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the database. It measures the percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectly accepted. In case of similarity scale, if the person is imposter in real, but the matching score is higher than the threshold, then he is treated as genuine that increase the FAR and hence performance also depends upon the selection of threshold value.
false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR): the probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and a matching template in the database. It measures the percent of valid inputs which are incorrectly rejected.
failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER): the rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs. failure to capture rate (FTC): Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric input when presented correctly. template capacity: the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system. Reference(s) used for this question: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 37 and Wikipedia at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics
Why do buffer overflows happen? What is the main cause?
A. Because buffers can only hold so much data
B. Because of improper parameter checking within the application
C. Because they are an easy weakness to exploit
D. Because of insufficient system memory
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Buffer Overflow attack takes advantage of improper parameter checking within the application. This is the classic form of buffer overflow and occurs because the programmer accepts whatever input the user supplies without
checking to make sure that the length of the input is less than the size of the buffer in the program. The buffer overflow problem is one of the oldest and most common problems in software development and programming, dating back to the
introduction of interactive computing. It can result when a program fills up the assigned buffer of memory with more data than its buffer can hold. When the program begins to write beyond the end of the buffer, the program\’s execution path
can be changed, or data can be written into areas used by the operating system itself. This can lead to the insertion of malicious code that can be used to gain administrative privileges on the program or system. As explained by Gaurab, it
can become very complex. At the time of input even if you are checking the length of the input, it has to be check against the buffer size. Consider a case where entry point of data is stored in Buffer1 of Application1 and then you copy it to
Buffer2 within Application2 later on, if you are just checking the length of data against Buffer1, it will not ensure that it will not cause a buffer overflow in Buffer2 of Application2
A bit of reassurance from the ISC2 book about level of Coding Knowledge needed for the exam:
It should be noted that the CISSP is not required to be an expert programmer or know the inner workings of developing application software code, like the FORTRAN programming language, or how to develop Web applet code using Java. It
is not even necessary that the CISSP know detailed security-specific coding practices such as the major divisions of buffer overflow exploits or the reason for preferring str(n)cpy to strcpy in the C language (although all such knowledge is, of
course, helpful). Because the CISSP may be the person responsible for ensuring that security is included in such developments, the CISSP should know the basic procedures and concepts involved during the design and development of
software programming. That is, in order for the CISSP to monitor the software development process and verify that security is included, the CISSP must understand the fundamental concepts of programming developments and the security
strengths and weaknesses of various application development processes.
The following are incorrect answers:
“Because buffers can only hold so much data” is incorrect. This is certainly true but is not the best answer because the finite size of the buffer is not the problem — the problem is that the programmer did not check the size of the input before
moving it into the buffer.
“Because they are an easy weakness to exploit” is incorrect. This answer is sometimes true but is not the best answer because the root cause of the buffer overflow is that the programmer did not check the size of the user input.
“Because of insufficient system memory” is incorrect. This is irrelevant to the occurrence of a buffer overflow.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 13319-13323). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
Which access control model would a lattice-based access control model be an example of?
A. Mandatory access control.
B. Discretionary access control.
C. Non-discretionary access control.
D. Rule-based access control.
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: In a lattice model, there are pairs of elements that have the least upper bound of values and greatest lower bound of values. In a Mandatory Access Control (MAC) model, users and data owners do not have as much freedom to
determine who can access files.
FIRST: The Lattice
A lattice is simply an access control tool usually used to implement Mandatory Access Control (MAC) and it could also be used to implement RBAC but this is not as common. The lattice model can be used for Integrity level or file permissions
as well. The lattice has a least upper bound and greatest lower bound. It makes use of pair of elements such as the subject security clearance pairing with the object sensitivity label.
SECOND: DAC (Discretionary Access Control)
Let\’s get into Discretionary Access Control: It is an access control method where the owner (read the creator of the object) will decide who has access at his own discretion. As we all know, users are sometimes insane. They will share their
files with other users based on their identity but nothing prevent the user from further sharing it with other users on the network. Very quickly you loose control on the flow of information and who has access to what. It is used in small and
friendly environment where a low level of security is all that is required.
THIRD: MAC (Mandatory Access Control)
All of the following are forms of Mandatory Access Control:
Mandatory Access control (MAC) (Implemented using the lattice) You must remember that MAC makes use of Security Clearance for the subject and also Labels will be assigned to the objects. The clearance of the Subject must dominate (be
equal or higher) the clearance of the Object being accessed. The label attached to the object will indicate the sensitivity leval and the categories the object belongs to. The categories are used to implement the Need to Know.
All of the following are forms of Non Discretionary Access Control:
Role Based Access Control (RBAC)
Rule Based Access Control (Think Firewall in this case)
The official ISC2 book says that RBAC (synonymous with Non Discretionary Access Control) is a form of DAC but they are simply wrong. RBAC is a form of Non Discretionary Access Control. Non Discretionary DOES NOT equal mandatory
access control as there is no labels and clearance involved.
I hope this clarifies the whole drama related to what is what in the world of access control.
In the same line of taught, you should be familiar with the difference between Explicit permission (the user has his own profile) versus Implicit (the user inherit permissions by being a member of a role for example).
The following answers are incorrect:
Discretionary access control. Is incorrect because in a Discretionary Access Control (DAC) model, access is restricted based on the authorization granted to the users. It is identity based access control only. It does not make use of a lattice.
Non-discretionary access control. Is incorrect because Non-discretionary Access Control (NDAC) uses the role-based access control method to determine access rights and permissions. It is often times used as a synonym to RBAC which is
Role Based Access Control. The user inherit permission from the role when they are assigned into the role. This type of access could make use of a lattice but could also be implemented without the use of a lattice in some case. Mandatory
Access Control was a better choice than this one, but RBAC could also make use of a lattice. The BEST answer was MAC.
Rule-based access control. Is incorrect because it is an example of a Non-discretionary Access Control (NDAC) access control mode. You have rules that are globally applied to all users. There is no such thing as a lattice being use in Rule-
Based Access Control.
AIOv3 Access Control (pages 161 – 168)
AIOv3 Security Models and Architecture (pages 291 – 293)
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