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Question 1:

In which of the following security models is the subject\’s clearance compared to the object\’s classification such that specific rules can be applied to control how the subject-to-object interactions take place?

A. Bell-LaPadula model

B. Biba model

C. Access Matrix model

D. Take-Grant model

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Details:

The Answer: Bell-LaPadula model

The Bell-LAPadula model is also called a multilevel security system because users with different clearances use the system and the system processes data with different classifications. Developed by the US Military in the 1970s.

A security model maps the abstract goals of the policy to information system terms by specifying explicit data structures and techniques necessary to enforce the security policy. A security model is usually represented in mathematics and

analytical ideas, which are mapped to system specifications and then developed by programmers through programming code. So we have a policy that encompasses security goals, such as “each subject must be authenticated and

authorized before accessing an object.” The security model takes this requirement and provides the necessary mathematical formulas, relationships, and logic structure to be followed to accomplish this goal.

A system that employs the Bell-LaPadula model is called a multilevel security system because users with different clearances use the system, and the system processes data at different classification levels. The level at which information is

classified determines the handling procedures that should be used. The Bell-LaPadula model is a state machine model that enforces the confidentiality aspects of access control. A matrix and security levels are used to determine if subjects

can access different objects. The subject\’s clearance is compared to the object\’s classification and then specific rules are applied to control how subject-to-object subject-to-object interactions can take place.

Reference(s) used for this question:

Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 369). McGraw- Hill. Kindle Edition.


Question 2:

What can be defined as a table of subjects and objects indicating what actions individual subjects can take upon individual objects?

A. A capacity table

B. An access control list

C. An access control matrix

D. A capability table

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: The matrix lists the users, groups and roles down the left side and the resources and functions across the top. The cells of the matrix can either indicate that access is allowed or indicate the type of access. CBK pp 317 – 318

AIO3, p. 169 describes it as a table if subjects and objects specifying the access rights a certain subject possesses pertaining to specific objects.

In either case, the matrix is a way of analyzing the access control needed by a population of subjects to a population of objects. This access control can be applied using rules, ACL\’s, capability tables, etc.

“A capacity table” is incorrect.

This answer is a trap for the unwary — it sounds a little like “capability table” but is just there to distract you.

“An access control list” is incorrect.

“It [ACL] specifies a list of users [subjects] who are allowed access to each object” CBK, p. 188 Access control lists (ACL) could be used to implement the rules identified by an access control matrix but is different from the matrix itself.

“A capability table” is incorrect.

“Capability tables are used to track, manage and apply controls based on the object and rights, or capabilities of a subject. For example, a table identifies the object, specifies access rights allowed for a subject, and permits access based on

the user\’s posession of a capability (or ticket) for the object.” CBK, pp. 191-192 To put it another way, as noted in AIO3 on p. 169, “A capabiltiy table is different from an ACL because the subject is bound to the capability table, whereas the

object is bound to the ACL.” Again, a capability table could be used to implement the rules identified by an access control matrix but is different from the matrix itself.

CBK pp. 191-192, 317-318

AIO3, p. 169


Question 3:

You wish to make use of “port knocking” technologies. How can you BEST explain this?

A. Port knocking is where the client will attempt to connect to a predefined set of ports to identify him as an authorized client.

B. Port knocking is where the user calls the server operator to have him start the service he wants to connect to.

C. This is where all the ports are open on the server and the connecting client scans the open port to which he wants to connect to see if it\’s open and running.

D. Port knocking is where the port sequence is encrypted with 3DES and only the server has the other key to decrypt the port sequence.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The other answers are incorrect

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

http://www.portknocking.org/


Question 4:

The fact that a network-based IDS reviews packets payload and headers enable which of the following?

A. Detection of denial of service

B. Detection of all viruses

C. Detection of data corruption

D. Detection of all password guessing attacks

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Because a network-based IDS reviews packets and headers, denial of service attacks can also be detected.

This question is an easy question if you go through the process of elimination. When you see an answer containing the keyword: ALL It is something a give away that it is not the proper answer. On the real exam you may encounter a few


Question 5:

Tim\’s day to day responsibilities include monitoring health of devices on the network. He uses a Network Monitoring System supporting SNMP to monitor the devices for any anomalies or high traffic passing through the interfaces. Which of the protocols would be BEST to use if some of the requirements are to prevent easy disclosure of the SNMP strings and authentication of the source of the packets?

A. UDP

B. SNMP V1

C. SNMP V3

D. SNMP V2

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks,

and more. It is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined by the Internet Engineering

Task Force (IETF).

SNMP V3

Although SNMPv3 makes no changes to the protocol aside from the addition of cryptographic security, it looks much different due to new textual conventions, concepts, and terminology. SNMPv3 primarily added security and remote

configuration enhancements to SNMP.

Security has been the biggest weakness of SNMP since the beginning. Authentication in SNMP Versions 1 and 2 amounts to nothing more than a password (community string) sent in clear text between a manager and agent. Each SNMPv3

message contains security parameters which are encoded as an octet string. The meaning of these security parameters depends on the security model being used.

SNMPv3 provides important security features:

Confidentiality – Encryption of packets to prevent snooping by an unauthorized source. Integrity – Message integrity to ensure that a packet has not been tampered with in transit including an optional packet replay protection mechanism.

Authentication – to verify that the message is from a valid source.

The following answers are incorrect:

UDP

SNMP can make use of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) protocol but the UDP protocol by itself is not use for network monitoring.

SNMP V1

SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1) is the initial implementation of the SNMP protocol. SNMPv1 operates over protocols such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Internet Protocol (IP), OSI Connectionless Network Service (CLNS), AppleTalk

Datagram-Delivery Protocol (DDP), and Novell Internet Packet Exchange (IPX). SNMPv1 is widely used and is the de facto network-management protocol in the Internet community.

SNMP V2

SNMPv2 (RFC 1441璕FC 1452), revises version 1 and includes improvements in the areas of performance, security, confidentiality, and manager-to-manager communications. It introduced GetBulkRequest, an alternative to iterative

GetNextRequests for retrieving large amounts of management data in a single request. However, the new party-based security system in SNMPv2, viewed by many as overly complex, was not widely accepted.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_Network_Management_Protocol Harris, Shon (2012-10-18). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 587). McGraw- Hill. Kindle Edition.

Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 7434-7436). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.


CISSP VCE DumpsCISSP Practice TestCISSP Study Guide

Question 6:

Which of the following represents the columns of the table in a relational database?

A. attributes

B. relation

C. record retention

D. records or tuples

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The rows of the table represent records or tuples and the columns of the table represent the attributes.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 45


Question 7:

Access control is the collection of mechanisms that permits managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use, and content of a system. It does not permit management to:

A. specify what users can do

B. specify which resources they can access

C. specify how to restrain hackers

D. specify what operations they can perform on a system.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Access control is the collection of mechanisms that permits managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use, and content of a system. It permits management to specify what users can do, which resources they can access, and what operations they can perform on a system. Specifying HOW to restrain hackers is not directly linked to access control. Source: DUPUIS, Clement, Access Control Systems and Methodology, Version 1, May 2002, CISSP Open Study Group Study Guide for Domain 1, Page 12


Question 8:

Which of the following access control techniques best gives the security officers the ability to specify and enforce enterprise-specific security policies in a way that maps naturally to an organization\’s structure?

A. Access control lists

B. Discretionary access control

C. Role-based access control

D. Non-mandatory access control

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Role-based access control (RBAC) gives the security officers the ability to specify and enforce enterprise-specific security policies in a way that maps naturally to an organization\’s structure. Each user is assigned one or more

roles, and each role is assigned one or more privileges that are given to users in that role. An access control list (ACL) is a table that tells a system which access rights each user has to a particular system object. With discretionary access

control, administration is decentralized and owners of resources control other users\’ access. Non-mandatory access control is not a defined access control technique.

Source: ANDRESS, Mandy, Exam Cram CISSP, Coriolis, 2001, Chapter 2: Access Control Systems and Methodology (page 9).


Question 9:

In the days before CIDR (Classless Internet Domain Routing), networks were commonly organized by classes. Which of the following would have been true of a Class A network?

A. The first bit of the IP address would be set to zero.

B. The first bit of the IP address would be set to one and the second bit set to zero.

C. The first two bits of the IP address would be set to one, and the third bit set to zero.

D. The first three bits of the IP address would be set to one.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Each Class A network address has a 8-bit network prefix, with the first bit of the ipaddress set to zero. See the diagram below for more details.

The following answers are incorrect:

The first bit of the IP address would be set to one and the second bit set to zero. Is incorrect because this would be a Class B network address.

The first two bits of the IP address would be set to one, and the third bit set to zero. Is incorrect because, this would be a Class C network address.

The first three bits of the ipaddress would be set to one. Is incorrect because, this is a distractor.

Class D and E have the first three bits set to 1.

Class D the 4th bit is 0 and for

Class E the 4th bit to 1.

See diagram below from the 3COM tutorial on everything you ever wanted to know about IP addressing:

Classful IP addressing format

Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR)

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a method for allocating IP addresses and routing Internet Protocol packets. The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous addressing architecture of classful

network design in the Internet. Their goal was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.

For Class A, the addresses are 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255. For Class B networks, the addresses are 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255. For Class C, the addresses are 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255. For Class D, the addresses are 224.0.0.0

239.255.255.255. For Class E, the addresses are 240.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255. 3Com http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en_US/501302.pdf and AIOv3 Telecommunications and Networking Security (page 438) and https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Classless_Inter- Domain_Routing


Question 10:

Which of the following methods of providing telecommunications continuity involves the use of an alternative media?

A. Alternative routing

B. Diverse routing

C. Long haul network diversity

D. Last mile circuit protection

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Alternative routing is a method of routing information via an alternate medium such as copper cable or fiber optics. This involves use of different networks, circuits or end points should the normal network be unavailable. Diverse routing routes traffic through split cable facilities or duplicate cable facilities. This can be accomplished with different and/or duplicate cable sheaths. If different cable sheaths are used, the cable may be in the same conduit and therefore subject to the same interruptions as the cable it is backing up. The communication service subscriber can duplicate the facilities by having alternate routes, although the entrance to and from the customer premises may be in the same conduit. The subscriber can obtain diverse routing and alternate routing from the local carrier, including dual entrance facilities. This type of access is time-consuming and costly. Long haul network diversity is a diverse long-distance network utilizing T1 circuits among the major long-distance carriers. It ensures long-distance access should any one carrier experience a network failure. Last mile circuit protection is a redundant combination of local carrier T1s microwave and/or coaxial cable access to the local communications loop. This enables the facility to have access during a local carrier communication disaster. Alternate local carrier routing is also utilized. Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 5: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (page 259).


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