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Question 1:

In which of the following security models is the subject\’s clearance compared to the object\’s classification such that specific rules can be applied to control how the subject-to-object interactions take place?

A. Bell-LaPadula model

B. Biba model

C. Access Matrix model

D. Take-Grant model

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Details:

The Answer: Bell-LaPadula model

The Bell-LAPadula model is also called a multilevel security system because users with different clearances use the system and the system processes data with different classifications. Developed by the US Military in the 1970s.

A security model maps the abstract goals of the policy to information system terms by specifying explicit data structures and techniques necessary to enforce the security policy. A security model is usually represented in mathematics and

analytical ideas, which are mapped to system specifications and then developed by programmers through programming code. So we have a policy that encompasses security goals, such as “each subject must be authenticated and

authorized before accessing an object.” The security model takes this requirement and provides the necessary mathematical formulas, relationships, and logic structure to be followed to accomplish this goal.

A system that employs the Bell-LaPadula model is called a multilevel security system because users with different clearances use the system, and the system processes data at different classification levels. The level at which information is

classified determines the handling procedures that should be used. The Bell-LaPadula model is a state machine model that enforces the confidentiality aspects of access control. A matrix and security levels are used to determine if subjects

can access different objects. The subject\’s clearance is compared to the object\’s classification and then specific rules are applied to control how subject-to-object subject-to-object interactions can take place.

Reference(s) used for this question:

Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 369). McGraw- Hill. Kindle Edition.


Question 2:

Which of the following biometrics methods provides the HIGHEST accuracy and is LEAST accepted by users?

A. Palm Scan

B. Hand Geometry

C. Fingerprint

D. Retina scan

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Retina based biometric involves analyzing the layer of blood vessels situated at the back of the eye.

An established technology, this technique involves using a low-intensity light source through an optical coupler to scan the unique patterns of the retina. Retinal scanning can be quite accurate but does require the user to look into a receptacle

and focus on a given point. This is not particularly convenient if you wear glasses or are concerned about having close contact with the reading device. For these reasons, retinal scanning is not warmly accepted by all users, even though the

technology itself can work well.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Biometrics

Biometrics verifies an individual\’s identity by analyzing a unique personal attribute or behavior, which is one of the most effective and accurate methods of verifying identification and not well received by society. Biometrics is a very

sophisticated technology; thus, it is much more expensive and complex than the other types of identity verification processes. A biometric system can make authentication decisions based on an individual\’s behavior, as in signature dynamics,

but these can change over time and possibly be forged. Biometric systems that base authentication decisions on physical attributes (such as iris, retina, or fingerprint) provide more accuracy because physical attributes typically don\’t change,

absent some disfiguring injury, and are harder to impersonate Biometrics is typically broken up into two different categories. The first is the physiological. These are traits that are physical attributes unique to a specific individual. Fingerprints

are a common example of a physiological trait used in biometric systems. The second category of biometrics is known as behavioral. The behavioral authentication is also known as continuous authentication. The behavioral/continuous

authentication prevents session hijacking attack. This is based on a characteristic of an individual to confirm his identity. An example is signature Dynamics. Physiological is “what you are” and behavioral is “what you do.”

When a biometric system rejects an authorized individual, it is called a Type I error (false rejection rate). When the system accepts impostors who should be rejected, it is called a Type II error (false acceptance rate). The goal is to obtain low

numbers for each type of error, but Type II errors are the most dangerous and thus the most important to avoid. When comparing different biometric systems, many different variables are used, but one of the most important metrics is the

crossover error rate (CER). This rating is stated as a percentage and represents the point at which the false rejection rate equals the false acceptance rate. This rating is the most important measurement when determining the system\’s

accuracy. A biometric system that delivers a CER of 3 will be more accurate than a system that delivers a CER of 4 Crossover error rate (CER) is also called equal error rate (EER).

Throughput describes the process of authenticating to a biometric system. This is also referred to as the biometric system response time. The primary consideration that should be put into the purchasing and implementation of biometric

access control are user acceptance, accuracy and processing speed.

Biometric Considerations

In addition to the access control elements of a biometric system, there are several other considerations that are important to the integrity of the control environment. These are:

Resistance to counterfeiting

Data storage requirements

User acceptance

Reliability and

Target User and approach

Fingerprint

Fingerprints are made up of ridge endings and bifurcations exhibited by friction ridges and other detailed characteristics called minutiae. It is the distinctiveness of these minutiae that gives each individual a unique fingerprint. An individual

places his finger on a device that reads the details of the fingerprint and compares this to a reference file. If the two match, the individual\’s identity has been verified.

Palm Scan

The palm holds a wealth of information and has many aspects that are used to identify an individual. The palm has creases, ridges, and grooves throughout that are unique to a specific person. The palm scan also includes the fingerprints of

each finger. An individual places his hand on the biometric device, which scans and captures this information. This information is compared to a reference file, and the identity is either verified or rejected.

Hand Geometry

The shape of a person\’s hand (the shape, length, and width of the hand and fingers) defines hand geometry. This trait differs significantly between people and is used in some biometric systems to verify identity. A person places her hand on a

device that has grooves for each finger. The system compares the geometry of each finger, and the hand as a whole, to the information in a reference file to verify that person\’s identity.

Retina Scan

A system that reads a person\’s retina scans the blood-vessel pattern of the retina on the backside of the eyeball. This pattern has shown to be extremely unique between different people. A camera is used to project a beam inside the eye and

capture the pattern and compare it to a reference file recorded previously.

Iris Scan

An iris scan is a passive biometric control

The iris is the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The iris has unique patterns, rifts, colors, rings, coronas, and furrows. The uniqueness of each of these characteristics within the iris is captured by a camera and compared with

the information gathered during the enrollment phase.

When using an iris pattern biometric system, the optical unit must be positioned so the sun does not shine into the aperture; thus, when implemented, it must have proper placement within the facility.

Signature Dynamics

When a person signs a signature, usually they do so in the same manner and speed each time. Signing a signature produces electrical signals that can be captured by a biometric system. The physical motions performed when someone is

signing a document create these electrical signals. The signals provide unique characteristics that can be used to distinguish one individual from another. Signature dynamics provides more information than a static signature, so there are

more variables to verify when confirming an individual\’s identity and more assurance that this person is who he claims to be.

Keystroke Dynamics

Whereas signature dynamics is a method that captures the electrical signals when a person signs a name, keystroke dynamics captures electrical signals when a person types a certain phrase. As a person types a specified phrase, the

biometric system captures the speed and motions of this action. Each individual has a certain style and speed, which translate into unique signals. This type of authentication is more effective than typing in a password, because a password is

easily obtainable. It is much harder to repeat a person\’s typing style than it is to acquire a password.

Voice Print

People\’s speech sounds and patterns have many subtle distinguishing differences. A biometric system that is programmed to capture a voice print and compare it to the information held in a reference file can differentiate one individual from

another. During the enrollment process, an individual is asked to say several different words.

Facial Scan

A system that scans a person\’s face takes many attributes and characteristics into account. People have different bone structures, nose ridges, eye widths, forehead sizes, and chin shapes. These are all captured during a facial scan and

compared to an earlier captured scan held within a reference record. If the information is a match, the person is positively identified.

Hand Topography

Whereas hand geometry looks at the size and width of an individual\’s hand and fingers, hand topology looks at the different peaks and valleys of the hand, along with its overall shape and curvature. When an individual wants to be

authenticated, she places her hand on the system. Off to one side of the system, a camera snaps a side-view picture of the hand from a different view and angle than that of systems that target hand geometry, and thus captures different data.

This attribute is not unique enough to authenticate individuals by itself and is commonly used in conjunction with hand geometry.

Vascular Scan

Valcular Scan uses the blood vessel under the first layer of skin.

The following answers are incorrect:

Fingerprint – Fingerprints are made up of ridge endings and bifurcations exhibited by friction ridges and other detailed characteristics called minutiae. It is the distinctiveness of these minutiae that gives each individual a unique fingerprint. An

individual places his finger on a device that reads the details of the fingerprint and compares this to a reference file. If the two match, the individual\’s identity has been verified.

Hand Geometry – The shape of a person\’s hand (the shape, length, and width of the hand and fingers) defines hand geometry. This trait differs significantly between people and is used in some biometric systems to verify identity. A person

places her hand on a device that has grooves for each finger. The system compares the geometry of each finger, and the hand as a whole, to the information in a reference file to verify that person\’s identity.

Palm Scan – The palm holds a wealth of information and has many aspects that are used to identify an individual. The palm has creases, ridges, and grooves throughout that are unique to a specific person. The palm scan also includes the

fingerprints of each finger. An individual places his hand on the biometric device, which scans and captures this information. This information is compared to a reference file, and the identity is either verified or rejected.

Following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: CISA review manual 2014 Page number 330 and 331 Official ISC2 guide to CISSP CBK 3rd Edition Page number 924


Question 3:

What is the BEST definition of SQL injection.

A. SQL injection is a database problem.

B. SQL injection is a web Server problem.

C. SQL injection is a windows and Linux website problem that could be corrected by applying a website vendors patch.

D. SQL injection is an input validation problem.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: SQL injection is execution of unexpected SQL in the database as a result of unsanitized user input being accepted and used in the application code to form the SQL statement.It is a coding problem which affects inhouse, open

source and commercial software.

The following answers are incorrect:

SQL injection is a database problem.

SQL injection is a web Server problem.

SQL injection is a windows and Linux website problem that could be corrected by applying a website vendors patch.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

https://security.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/SQLi_Prevention.pdf (page 9 and

10)


Question 4:

In Synchronous dynamic password tokens:

A. The token generates a new password value at fixed time intervals (this password could be based on the time of day encrypted with a secret key).

B. The token generates a new non-unique password value at fixed time intervals (this password could be based on the time of day encrypted with a secret key).

C. The unique password is not entered into a system or workstation along with an owner\’s PIN.

D. The authentication entity in a system or workstation knows an owner\’s secret key and PIN, and the entity verifies that the entered password is invalid and that it was entered during the invalid time window.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: Synchronous dynamic password tokens:

The token generates a new password value at fixed time intervals (this password could be the time of day encrypted with a secret key).

The unique password is entered into a system or workstation along with an owner\’s PIN. The authentication entity in a system or workstation knows an owner\’s secret key and PIN, and the entity verifies that the entered password is valid and

that it was entered during the valid time window.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 37


Question 5:

Which of the following was developed to address some of the weaknesses in Kerberos and uses public key cryptography for the distribution of secret keys and provides additional access control support?

A. SESAME

B. RADIUS

C. KryptoKnight

D. TACACS

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Secure European System for Applications in a Multi-vendor Environment (SESAME) was developed to address some of the weaknesses in Kerberos and uses public key cryptography for the distribution of secret keys and

provides additional access control support.

Reference:

TIPTON, Harold, Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK (2007), page 184

ISC OIG Second Edition, Access Controls, Page 111


Latest CISSP DumpsCISSP Exam QuestionsCISSP Braindumps

Question 6:

A smart Card that has two chips with the Capability of utilizing both Contact and Contactless formats is called:

A. Contact Smart Cards

B. Contactless Smart Cards

C. Hybrid Cards

D. Combi Cards

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: This is a contactless smart card that has two chips with the capability of utilizing both contact and contactless formats.

Two additional categories of cards are dual-interface cards and hybrid cards which is mentioned above.

Hybrid Card

A hybrid card has two chips, one with a contact interface and one with a contactless interface. The two chips are not interconnected.

Dual-Interface card

Do not confuse this card with the Hybrid Card. This one has only one chip. A dual-interface card has a single chip with both contact and contactless interfaces. With dual-interface cards, it is possible to access the same chip using either a

contact or contactless interface with a very high level of security.

Inner working of the cards

The chips used in all of these cards fall into two categories as well: microcontroller chips and memory chips. A memory chip is like a small floppy disk with optional security. Memory chips are less expensive than microcontrollers but with a

corresponding decrease in data management security. Cards that use memory chips depend on the security of the card reader for processing and are ideal for situations that require low or medium security. A microcontroller chip can add,

delete, and otherwise manipulate information in its memory. A microcontroller is like a miniature computer, with an input/output port, operating system, and hard disk. Smart cards with an embedded microcontroller have the unique ability to

store large amounts of data, carry out their own on-card functions (e.g., encryption and digital signatures) and interact intelligently with a smart card reader.

The selection of a particular card technology is driven by a variety of issues, including:

Application dynamics

Prevailing market infrastructure

Economics of the business model

Strategy for shared application cards

Smart cards are used in many applications worldwide, including:

Secure identity applications – employee ID badges, citizen ID documents, electronic passports, driver\’s licenses, online authentication devices Healthcare applications – citizen health ID cards, physician ID cards, portable medical records

cards

Payment applications – contact and contactless credit/debit cards, transit payment cards Telecommunications applications – GSM Subscriber Identity Modules, pay telephone payment cards

The following answers are incorrect:

Contact Smart Cards

A contact smart card must be inserted into a smart card reader with a direct connection to a conductive contact plate on the surface of the card (typically gold plated). Transmission of commands, data, and card status takes place over these

physical contact points.

Contactless Smart Cards

A contactless card requires only close proximity to a reader. Both the reader and the card have antennae, and the two communicate using radio frequencies (RF) over this contactless link. Most contactless cards also derive power for the

internal chip from this electromagnetic signal. The range is typically one-half to three inches for non-battery- powered cards, ideal for applications such as building entry and payment that require a very fast card interface.

Combi Card

Are similar to Hybrid cards only they contain only one set of circuitry as apposed to two.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

Smart Card Primer at: http://www.smartcardalliance.org/pages/smart-cards-intro-primer


Question 7:

The end result of implementing the principle of least privilege means which of the following?

A. Users would get access to only the info for which they have a need to know

B. Users can access all systems.

C. Users get new privileges added when they change positions.

D. Authorization creep.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The principle of least privilege refers to allowing users to have only the access they need and not anything more. Thus, certain users may have no need to access any of the files on specific systems. The following answers are incorrect:

Users can access all systems. Although the principle of least privilege limits what access and systems users have authorization to, not all users would have a need to know to access all of the systems. The best answer is still Users would get access to only the info for which they have a need to know as some of the users may not have a need to access a system.

Users get new privileges when they change positions. Although true that a user may indeed require new privileges, this is not a given fact and in actuality a user may require less privileges for a new position. The principle of least privilege would require that the rights required for the position be closely evaluated and where possible rights revoked.

Authorization creep. Authorization creep occurs when users are given additional rights with new positions and responsibilities. The principle of least privilege should actually prevent authorization creep.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

ISC2 OIG 2007 p.101,123

Shon Harris AIO v3 p148, 902-903


Question 8:

Which access control model was proposed for enforcing access control in government and military applications?

A. Bell-LaPadula model

B. Biba model

C. Sutherland model

D. Brewer-Nash model

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The Bell-LaPadula model, mostly concerned with confidentiality, was proposed for enforcing access control in government and military applications. It supports mandatory access control by determining the access rights from the

security levels associated with subjects and objects. It also supports discretionary access control by checking access rights from an access matrix. The Biba model, introduced in 1977, the Sutherland model, published in 1986, and the

Brewer-Nash model, published in 1989, are concerned with integrity.

Source: ANDRESS, Mandy, Exam Cram CISSP, Coriolis, 2001, Chapter 2: Access Control Systems and Methodology (page 11).


Question 9:

Which of the following is most appropriate to notify an external user that session monitoring is being conducted?

A. Logon Banners

B. Wall poster

C. Employee Handbook

D. Written agreement

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Banners at the log-on time should be used to notify external users of any monitoring that is being conducted. A good banner will give you a better legal stand and also makes it obvious the user was warned about who should

access the system and if it is an unauthorized user then he is fully aware of trespassing.

This is a tricky question, the keyword in the question is External user.

There are two possible answers based on how the question is presented, this question could either apply to internal users or ANY anonymous user.

Internal users should always have a written agreement first, then logon banners serve as a constant reminder.

Anonymous users, such as those logging into a web site, ftp server or even a mail server; their only notification system is the use of a logon banner.

References used for this question:

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 50

and

Shon Harris, CISSP All-in-one, 5th edition, pg 873


Question 10:

Which of the following is implemented through scripts or smart agents that replays the users multiple log-ins against authentication servers to verify a user\’s identity which permit access to system services?

A. Single Sign-On

B. Dynamic Sign-On

C. Smart cards

D. Kerberos

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: SSO can be implemented by using scripts that replay the users multiple log- ins against authentication servers to verify a user\’s identity and to permit access to system services.

Single Sign on was the best answer in this case because it would include Kerberos. When you have two good answers within the 4 choices presented you must select the BEST one. The high level choice is always the best. When one choice

would include the other one that would be the best as well.

Reference(s) used for this question:

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 40


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