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Question 1:

Ensuring least privilege does not require:

A. Identifying what the user\’s job is.

B. Ensuring that the user alone does not have sufficient rights to subvert an important process.

C. Determining the minimum set of privileges required for a user to perform their duties.

D. Restricting the user to required privileges and nothing more.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: Ensuring that the user alone does not have sufficient rights to subvert an important process is a concern of the separation of duties principle and it does not concern the least privilege principle. Source: DUPUIS, Cl閙ent, Access Control Systems and Methodology CISSP Open Study Guide, version 10, march 2002 (page 33).

Question 2:

Which of the following does not apply to system-generated passwords?

A. Passwords are harder to remember for users.

B. If the password-generating algorithm gets to be known, the entire system is in jeopardy.

C. Passwords are more vulnerable to brute force and dictionary attacks.

D. Passwords are harder to guess for attackers.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Users tend to choose easier to remember passwords. System-generated passwords can provide stronger, harder to guess passwords. Since they are based on rules provided by the administrator, they can include combinations of uppercase/lowercase letters, numbers and special characters, making them less vulnerable to brute force and dictionary attacks. One danger is that they are also harder to remember for users, who will tend to write them down, making them more vulnerable to anyone having access to the user\’s desk. Another danger with system-generated passwords is that if the password- generating algorithm gets to be known, the entire system is in jeopardy. Source: RUSSEL, Deborah and GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O\’Reilly, July 1992 (page 64).

Question 3:

In an organization where there are frequent personnel changes, non-discretionary access control using Role Based Access Control (RBAC) is useful because:

A. people need not use discretion

B. the access controls are based on the individual\’s role or title within the organization.

C. the access controls are not based on the individual\’s role or title within the organization

D. the access controls are often based on the individual\’s role or title within the organization

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: In an organization where there are frequent personnel changes, non- discretionary access control (also called Role Based Access Control) is useful because the access controls are based on the individual\’s role or title within the

organization. You can easily configure a new employee acces by assigning the user to a role that has been predefine. The user will implicitly inherit the permissions of the role by being a member of that role.

These access permissions defined within the role do not need to be changed whenever a new person takes over the role.

Another type of non-discretionary access control model is the Rule Based Access Control (RBAC or RuBAC) where a global set of rule is uniformly applied to all subjects accessing the resources. A good example of RuBAC would be a

firewall. This question is a sneaky one, one of the choice has only one added word to it which is often. Reading questions and their choices very carefully is a must for the real exam.

Reading it twice if needed is recommended.

Shon Harris in her book list the following ways of managing RBAC:

Role-based access control can be managed in the following ways:

?Non-RBAC Users are mapped directly to applications and no roles are used. (No roles being used)

?Limited RBAC Users are mapped to multiple roles and mapped directly to other types of applications that do not have role-based access functionality. (A mix of roles for applications that supports roles and explicit access control would be

used for applications that do not support roles)

?Hybrid RBAC Users are mapped to multiapplication roles with only selected rights assigned to those roles.

?Full RBAC Users are mapped to enterprise roles. (Roles are used for all access being granted)

NIST defines RBAC as:

Security administration can be costly and prone to error because administrators usually specify access control lists for each user on the system individually. With RBAC, security is managed at a level that corresponds closely to the

organization\’s structure. Each user is assigned one or more roles, and each role is assigned one or more privileges that are permitted to users in that role. Security administration with RBAC consists of determining the operations that must be

executed by persons in particular jobs, and assigning employees to the proper roles. Complexities introduced by mutually exclusive roles or role hierarchies are handled by the RBAC software, making security administration easier.

Reference(s) used for this question:

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 32 and

Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition McGraw-Hill.



Question 4:

What is considered the most important type of error to avoid for a biometric access control system?

A. Type I Error

B. Type II Error

C. Combined Error Rate D. Crossover Error Rate

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: When a biometric system is used for access control, the most important error is the false accept or false acceptance rate, or Type II error, where the system would accept an impostor.

A Type I error is known as the false reject or false rejection rate and is not as important in the security context as a type II error rate. A type one is when a valid company employee is rejected by the system and he cannot get access even thou

it is a valid user. The Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point at which the false rejection rate equals the false acceptance rate if your would create a graph of Type I and Type II errors. The lower the CER the better the device would be.

The Combined Error Rate is a distracter and does not exist.

Source: TIPTON, Harold F. and KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management Handbook, 4th edition (volume 1), 2000, CRC Press, Chapter 1, Biometric Identification (page 10).

Question 5:

Which of the following is required in order to provide accountability?

A. Authentication

B. Integrity

C. Confidentiality

D. Audit trails

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Accountability can actually be seen in two different ways:

1) Although audit trails are also needed for accountability, no user can be accountable for their actions unless properly authenticated.

2) Accountability is another facet of access control. Individuals on a system are responsible for their actions. This accountability property enables system activities to be traced to the proper individuals. Accountability is supported by audit trails

that record events on the system and network. Audit trails can be used for intrusion detection and for the reconstruction of past events. Monitoring individual activities, such as keystroke monitoring, should be accomplished in accordance with

the company policy and appropriate laws. Banners at the log-on time should notify the user of any monitoring that is being conducted. The point is that unless you employ an appropriate auditing mechanism, you don\’t have accountability.

Authorization only gives a user certain permissions on the network. Accountability is far more complex because it also includes intrusion detection, unauthorized actions by both unauthorized users and authorized users, and system faults.

The audit trail provides the proof that unauthorized modifications by both authorized and unauthorized users took place. No proof, No accountability.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, Page 50

The Shon Harris AIO book, 4th Edition, on Page 243 also states:

Auditing Capabilities ensures users are accountable for their actions, verify that the secutiy policies are enforced,

and can be used as investigation tools. Accountability is tracked by recording user, system, and application activities.

This recording is done through auditing functions and mechanisms within an operating sytem or application.

Audit trail contain information about operating System activities, application events, and user actions.

CISSP VCE DumpsCISSP Practice TestCISSP Exam Questions

Question 6:

What is the BEST definition of SQL injection.

A. SQL injection is a database problem.

B. SQL injection is a web Server problem.

C. SQL injection is a windows and Linux website problem that could be corrected by applying a website vendors patch.

D. SQL injection is an input validation problem.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: SQL injection is execution of unexpected SQL in the database as a result of unsanitized user input being accepted and used in the application code to form the SQL statement.It is a coding problem which affects inhouse, open

source and commercial software.

The following answers are incorrect:

SQL injection is a database problem.

SQL injection is a web Server problem.

SQL injection is a windows and Linux website problem that could be corrected by applying a website vendors patch.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

https://security.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/SQLi_Prevention.pdf (page 9 and


Question 7:

You are a manager for a large international bank and periodically move employees between positions in your department. What is this process called?

A. Job Rotation

B. Separation of Duties

C. Mandatory Rotations

D. Dual Control

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Discussion: If a single employee were permitted to stay in one critical position for an extended period of time without close oversight he or she could carry out fraud undetected.

For this reason it is important to rotate employees between jobs. Another good reason is to get employees experienced on their colleagues\’ jobs. This way, if an employee were for some reason unavailable to work, their position could be


The following answers are incorrect:

Separation of Duties: This is similar to Job Rotation because critical functions are divided up between employees to avoid and detect fraud. It is incorrect because with Job Rotation, people move between positions to detect fraud or even get

better at each position to provide some resiliency for the organization. Separation of Duties is more a preventative measure.

Mandatory Rotations: This is incorrect because of the terminology. There are terms called Mandatory Vacations and Job Rotation but not mandatory rotations. Be familiar with these terms before trying to pass the exam.

Dual Control: This term describes how a manager would require employees to work together (two or more) on critical actions so that no single employee can cause catastrophic damage. This isn\’t the correct answer but it is very similar to Job

Rotation where an employee rotates between job duties. Dual Control requires employees to work together on critical tasks in hopes of limiting collusion to commit fraud.

The following reference(s) was used to create this question:

Gregg, Michael; Haines, Billy (2012-02-16). CASP: CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner Study Guide Authorized Courseware: Exam CAS-001 (p. 245). Wiley. Kindle Edition.

Question 8:

Which of the following biometric parameters are better suited for authentication use over a long period of time?

A. Iris pattern

B. Voice pattern

C. Signature dynamics

D. Retina pattern

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The iris pattern is considered lifelong. Unique features of the iris are:

freckles, rings, rifts, pits, striations, fibers, filaments, furrows, vasculature and coronas. Voice, signature and retina patterns are more likely to change over time, thus are not as suitable for authentication over a long period of time without

needing re-enrollment. Source: FERREL, Robert G, Questions and Answers for the CISSP Exam, domain 1 (derived from the Information Security Management Handbook, 4th Ed., by Tipton and Krause).

Question 9:

What kind of certificate is used to validate a user identity?

A. Public key certificate

B. Attribute certificate

C. Root certificate

D. Code signing certificate

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: In cryptography, a public key certificate (or identity certificate) is an electronic document which incorporates a digital signature to bind together a public key with an identity — information such as the name of a person or an

organization, their address, and so forth. The certificate can be used to verify that a public key belongs to an individual.

In a typical public key infrastructure (PKI) scheme, the signature will be of a certificate authority (CA). In a web of trust scheme, the signature is of either the user (a self-signed certificate) or other users (“endorsements”). In either case, the

signatures on a certificate are attestations by the certificate signer that the identity information and the public key belong together.

In computer security, an authorization certificate (also known as an attribute certificate) is a digital document that describes a written permission from the issuer to use a service or a resource that the issuer controls or has access to use. The

permission can be delegated.

Some people constantly confuse PKCs and ACs. An analogy may make the distinction clear. A PKC can be considered to be like a passport: it identifies the holder, tends to last for a long time, and should not be trivial to obtain. An AC is more

like an entry visa: it is typically issued by a different authority and does not last for as long a time. As acquiring an entry visa typically requires presenting a passport, getting a visa can be a simpler process.

A real life example of this can be found in the mobile software deployments by large service providers and are typically applied to platforms such as Microsoft Smartphone (and related), Symbian OS, J2ME, and others.

In each of these systems a mobile communications service provider may customize the mobile terminal client distribution (ie. the mobile phone operating system or application environment) to include one or more root certificates each

associated with a set of capabilities or permissions such as “update firmware”, “access address book”, “use radio interface”, and the most basic one, “install and execute”. When a developer wishes to enable distribution and execution in one

of these controlled environments they must acquire a certificate from an appropriate CA, typically a large commercial CA, and in the process they usually have their identity verified using out-of-band mechanisms such as a combination of

phone call, validation of their legal entity through government and commercial databases, etc., similar to the high assurance SSL certificate vetting process, though often there are additional specific requirements imposed on would-be


Once the identity has been validated they are issued an identity certificate they can use to sign their software; generally the software signed by the developer or publisher\’s identity certificate is not distributed but rather it is submitted to

processor to possibly test or profile the content before generating an authorization certificate which is unique to the particular software release. That certificate is then used with an ephemeral asymmetric key-pair to sign the software as the

last step of preparation for distribution. There are many advantages to separating the identity and authorization certificates especially relating to risk mitigation of new content being accepted into the system and key management as well as

recovery from errant software which can be used as attack vectors.

HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, 2001, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, page 540



Question 10:

Which security model uses division of operations into different parts and requires different users to perform each part?

A. Bell-LaPadula model

B. Biba model

C. Clark-Wilson model

D. Non-interference model

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: The Clark-Wilson model uses separation of duties, which divides an operation into different parts and requires different users to perform each part. This prevents authorized users from making unauthorized modifications to data,

thereby protecting its integrity.

The Clark-Wilson integrity model provides a foundation for specifying and analyzing an integrity policy for a computing system.

The model is primarily concerned with formalizing the notion of information integrity. Information integrity is maintained by preventing corruption of data items in a system due to either error or malicious intent. An integrity policy describes how

the data items in the system should be kept valid from one state of the system to the next and specifies the capabilities of various principals in the system. The model defines enforcement rules and certification rules.

The model\’s enforcement and certification rules define data items and processes that provide the basis for an integrity policy. The core of the model is based on the notion of a transaction.

A well-formed transaction is a series of operations that transition a system from one consistent state to another consistent state.

In this model the integrity policy addresses the integrity of the transactions. The principle of separation of duty requires that the certifier of a transaction and the implementer be different entities.

The model contains a number of basic constructs that represent both data items and processes that operate on those data items. The key data type in the Clark-Wilson model is a Constrained Data Item (CDI). An Integrity Verification

Procedure (IVP) ensures that all CDIs in the system are valid at a certain state. Transactions that enforce the integrity policy are represented by Transformation Procedures (TPs). A TP takes as input a CDI or Unconstrained Data Item (UDI)

and produces a CDI. A TP must transition the system from one valid state to another valid state. UDIs represent system input (such as that provided by a user or adversary). A TP must guarantee (via certification) that it transforms all possible

values of a UDI to a “safe” CDI.

In general, preservation of data integrity has three goals:

Prevent data modification by unauthorized parties

Prevent unauthorized data modification by authorized parties Maintain internal and external consistency (i.e. data reflects the real world)

Clark-Wilson addresses all three rules but BIBA addresses only the first rule of intergrity. HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, Chapter

5: Security Architecture and Design (Page 341-344). and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clark-Wilson_model

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