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The Computer Security Policy Model the Orange Book is based on is which of the following?
B. Data Encryption Standard
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The Computer Security Policy Model Orange Book is based is the Bell- LaPadula Model. Orange Book Glossary.
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cryptographic algorithm. National Information Security Glossary.
TEMPEST is related to limiting the electromagnetic emanations from electronic equipment. Reference: U.S. Department of Defense, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book), DOD 520028-STD. December 1985 (also
Like the Kerberos protocol, SESAME is also subject to which of the following?
A. timeslot replay
B. password guessing
C. symmetric key guessing
D. asymmetric key guessing
Correct Answer: B
Sesame is an authentication and access control protocol, that also supports communication confidentiality and integrity. It provides public key based authentication along with the Kerberos style authentication, that uses symmetric key
cryptography. Sesame supports the Kerberos protocol and adds some security extensions like public key based authentication and an ECMA-style Privilege Attribute Service.
The users under SESAME can authenticate using either symmetric encryption as in Kerberos or Public Key authentication. When using Symmetric Key authentication as in Kerberos, SESAME is also vulnerable to password guessing just like
Kerberos would be. The Symmetric key being used is based on the password used by the user when he logged on the system. If the user has a simple password it could be guessed or compromise. Even thou Kerberos or SESAME may be
use, there is still a need to have strong password discipline.
The Basic Mechanism in Sesame for strong authentication is as follow:
The user sends a request for authentication to the Authentication Server as in Kerberos, except that SESAME is making use of public key cryptography for authentication where the client will present his digital certificate and the request will be
signed using a digital signature. The signature is communicated to the authentication server through the preauthentication fields. Upon receipt of this request, the authentication server will verifies the certificate, then validate the signature, and
if all is fine the AS will issue a ticket granting ticket (TGT) as in Kerberos. This TGT will be use to communicate with the privilage attribute server (PAS) when access to a resource is needed.
Users may authenticate using either a public key pair or a conventional (symmetric) key. If public key cryptography is used, public key data is transported in preauthentication data fields to help establish identity.
Kerberos uses tickets for authenticating subjects to objects and SESAME uses Privileged Attribute Certificates (PAC), which contain the subject\’s identity, access capabilities for the object, access time period, and lifetime of the PAC. The
PAC is digitally signed so that the object can validate that it came from the trusted authentication server, which is referred to as the privilege attribute server (PAS). The PAS holds a similar role as the KDC within Kerberos. After a user
successfully authenticates to the authentication service (AS), he is presented with a token to give to the PAS. The PAS then creates a PAC for the user to present to the resource he is trying to access.
Reference(s) used for this question:
KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 43
Which of the following attack is also known as Time of Check(TOC)/Time of Use(TOU)?
B. Traffic analysis
D. Race Condition
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: A Race Condition attack is also known as Time of Check(TOC)/Time of Use(TOU).
A race condition is when processes carry out their tasks on a shared resource in an incorrect order. A race condition is possible when two or more processes use a shared resource, as in data within a variable. It is important that the
processes carry out their functionality in the correct sequence. If process 2 carried out its task on the data before process 1, the result will be much different than if process1 carried out its tasks on the data before process 2
In software, when the authentication and authorization steps are split into two functions, there is a possibility an attacker could use a race condition to force the authorization step to be completed before the authentication step. This would be a
flaw in the software that the attacker has figured out how to exploit. A race condition occurs when two or more processes use the same resource and the sequences of steps within the software can be carried out in an improper order,
something that can drastically affect the output. So, an attacker can force the authorization step to take place before the authentication step and gain unauthorized access to a resource.
The following answers are incorrect:
Eavesdropping – is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black\’s Law Dictionary. This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that “eavesdroppers seldom
hear anything good of themselves…eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that concern them.”
Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the
greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is
a concern in computer security.
Masquerading – A masquerade attack is an attack that uses a fake identity, such as a network identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. If an authorization process is not
fully protected, it can become extremely vulnerable to a masquerade attack. Masquerade attacks can be perpetrated using stolen passwords and logons, by locating gaps in programs, or by finding a way around the authentication process.
The attack can be triggered either by someone within the organization or by an outsider if the organization is connected to a public network. The amount of access masquerade attackers get depends on the level of authorization they\’ve
managed to attain. As such, masquerade attackers can have a full smorgasbord of cyber crime opportunities if they\’ve gained the highest access authority to a business organization. Personal attacks, although less common, can also be
Following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:
CISA review manual 2014 Page number 324
Official ISC2 guide to CISSP CBK 3rd Edition Page number 66 CISSP All-In-One Exam guide 6th Edition Page Number 161
Tim\’s day to day responsibilities include monitoring health of devices on the network. He uses a Network Monitoring System supporting SNMP to monitor the devices for any anomalies or high traffic passing through the interfaces. Which of the protocols would be BEST to use if some of the requirements are to prevent easy disclosure of the SNMP strings and authentication of the source of the packets?
B. SNMP V1
C. SNMP V3
D. SNMP V2
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks,
and more. It is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF).
Although SNMPv3 makes no changes to the protocol aside from the addition of cryptographic security, it looks much different due to new textual conventions, concepts, and terminology. SNMPv3 primarily added security and remote
configuration enhancements to SNMP.
Security has been the biggest weakness of SNMP since the beginning. Authentication in SNMP Versions 1 and 2 amounts to nothing more than a password (community string) sent in clear text between a manager and agent. Each SNMPv3
message contains security parameters which are encoded as an octet string. The meaning of these security parameters depends on the security model being used.
SNMPv3 provides important security features:
Confidentiality – Encryption of packets to prevent snooping by an unauthorized source. Integrity – Message integrity to ensure that a packet has not been tampered with in transit including an optional packet replay protection mechanism.
Authentication – to verify that the message is from a valid source.
The following answers are incorrect:
SNMP can make use of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) protocol but the UDP protocol by itself is not use for network monitoring.
SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1) is the initial implementation of the SNMP protocol. SNMPv1 operates over protocols such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Internet Protocol (IP), OSI Connectionless Network Service (CLNS), AppleTalk
Datagram-Delivery Protocol (DDP), and Novell Internet Packet Exchange (IPX). SNMPv1 is widely used and is the de facto network-management protocol in the Internet community.
SNMPv2 (RFC 1441璕FC 1452), revises version 1 and includes improvements in the areas of performance, security, confidentiality, and manager-to-manager communications. It introduced GetBulkRequest, an alternative to iterative
GetNextRequests for retrieving large amounts of management data in a single request. However, the new party-based security system in SNMPv2, viewed by many as overly complex, was not widely accepted.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_Network_Management_Protocol Harris, Shon (2012-10-18). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 587). McGraw- Hill. Kindle Edition.
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 7434-7436). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
The three classic ways of authenticating yourself to the computer security software are: something you know, something you have, and something:
A. you need.
B. you read.
C. you are.
D. you do.
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation.
What are called user interfaces that limit the functions that can be selected by a user?
A. Constrained user interfaces
B. Limited user interfaces
C. Mini user interfaces
D. Unlimited user interfaces
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Another method for controlling access is by restricting users to specific functions based on their role in the system. This is typically implemented by limiting available menus, data views, encryption, or by physically constraining the
This is common on devices such as an automated teller machine (ATM). The advantage of a constrained user interface is that it limits potential avenues of attack and system failure by restricting the processing options that are available to the
On an ATM machine, if a user does not have a checking account with the bank he or she will not be shown the “Withdraw money from checking” option. Likewise, an information system might have an “Add/Remove Users” menu option for
administrators, but if a normal, non-administrative user logs in he or she will not even see that menu option. By not even identifying potential options for non-qualifying users, the system limits the potentially harmful execution of unauthorized
system or application commands.
Many database management systems have the concept of “views.” A database view is an extract of the data stored in the database that is filtered based on predefined user or system criteria. This permits multiple users to access the same
database while only having the ability to access data they need (or are allowed to have) and not data for another user. The use of database views is another example of a constrained user interface.
The following were incorrect answers:
All of the other choices presented were bogus answers.
The following reference(s) were used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 1989-2002). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
Which of the following statements pertaining to biometrics is FALSE?
A. User can be authenticated based on behavior.
B. User can be authenticated based on unique physical attributes.
C. User can be authenticated by what he knows.
D. A biometric system\’s accuracy is determined by its crossover error rate (CER).
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: As this is not a characteristic of Biometrics this is the rigth choice for this question. This is one of the three basic way authentication can be performed and it is not related to Biometrics. Example of something you know would be a
password or PIN for example.
Please make a note of the negative \’FALSE\’ within the question. This question may seem tricky to some of you but you would be amazed at how many people cannot deal with negative questions. There will be a few negative questions within
the real exam, just like this one the keyword NOT or FALSE will be in Uppercase to clearly indicate that it is negative.
Biometrics verifies an individual\’s identity by analyzing a unique personal attribute or behavior, which is one of the most effective and accurate methods of performing authentication (one to one matching) or identification (a one to many
matching). A biometric system scans an attribute or behavior of a person and compares it to a template store within an authentication server datbase, such template would be created in an earlier enrollment process. Because this system
inspects the grooves of a person\’s fingerprint, the pattern of someone\’s retina, or the pitches of someone\’s voice, it has to be extremely sensitive.
The system must perform accurate and repeatable measurements of anatomical or physiological characteristics. This type of sensitivity can easily cause false positives or false negatives. The system must be calibrated so that these false
positives and false negatives occur infrequently and the results are as accurate as possible.
There are two types of failures in biometric identification:
False Rejection also called False Rejection Rate (FRR) — The system fail to recognize a legitimate user. While it could be argued that this has the effect of keeping the protected area extra secure, it is an intolerable frustration to legitimate
users who are refused access because the scanner does not recognize them.
False Acceptance or False Acceptance Rate (FAR) — This is an erroneous recognition, either by confusing one user with another or by accepting an imposter as a legitimate user.
Unique Physical Attributes:
Fingerprint (Most commonly accepted)
Retina Scan (Most accurate but most intrusive)
(Dwell time (the time a key is pressed) and Flight time (the time between “key up” and the next “key down”).
(Stroke and pressure points)
Retina scan devices are the most accurate but also the most invasive biometrics system available today. The continuity of the retinal pattern throughout life and the difficulty in fooling such a device also make it a great long-term, high-security
option. Unfortunately, the cost of the proprietary hardware as well the stigma of users thinking it is potentially harmful to the eye makes retinal scanning a bad fit for most situations.
Remember for the exam that fingerprints are the most commonly accepted type of biometrics system.
The other answers are incorrect:
\’Users can be authenticated based on behavior.\’ is incorrect as this choice is TRUE as it pertains to BIOMETRICS.
Biometrics systems makes use of unique physical characteristics or behavior of users. \’User can be authenticated based on unique physical attributes.\’ is also incorrect as this choice is also TRUE as it pertains to BIOMETRICS. Biometrics
systems makes use of unique physical characteristics or behavior of users. \’A biometric system\’s accuracy is determined by its crossover error rate (CER)\’ is also incorrect as this is TRUE as it also pertains to BIOMETRICS. The CER is the
point at which the false rejection rates and the false acceptance rates are equal. The smaller the value of the CER, the more accurate the system.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 25353-25356). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 25297-25303). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
Which of the following access control models is based on sensitivity labels?
A. Discretionary access control
B. Mandatory access control
C. Rule-based access control
D. Role-based access control
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Access decisions are made based on the clearance of the subject and the sensitivity label of the object.
Example: Eve has a “Secret” security clearance and is able to access the “Mugwump Missile Design Profile” because its sensitivity label is “Secret.” She is denied access to the “Presidential Toilet Tissue Formula” because its sensitivity label
is “Top Secret.”
The other answers are not correct because:
Discretionary Access Control is incorrect because in DAC access to data is determined by the data owner. For example, Joe owns the “Secret Chili Recipe” and grants read access to Charles.
Role Based Access Control is incorrect because in RBAC access decsions are made based on the role held by the user. For example, Jane has the role “Auditor” and that role includes read permission on the “System Audit Log.” Rule Based
Access Control is incorrect because it is a form of MAC. A good example would be a Firewall where rules are defined and apply to anyone connecting through the firewall.
All in One third edition, page 164
Official ISC2 Guide page 187
Which access control model enables the OWNER of the resource to specify what subjects can access specific resources based on their identity?
A. Discretionary Access Control
B. Mandatory Access Control
C. Sensitive Access Control
D. Role-based Access Control
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Data owners decide who has access to resources based only on the identity of the person accessing the resource.
The following answers are incorrect :
Mandatory Access Control : users and data owners do not have as much freedom to determine who can access files. The operating system makes the final decision and can override the users\’ wishes and access decisions are based on security labels.
Sensitive Access Control : There is no such access control in the context of the above question.
Role-based Access Control : uses a centrally administered set of controls to determine how subjects and objects interact , also called as non discretionary access control.
In a mandatory access control (MAC) model, users and data owners do not have as much freedom to determine who can access files. The operating system makes the final decision and can override the users\’ wishes. This model is much more structured and strict and is based on a security label system. Users are given a security clearance (secret, top secret, confidential, and so on), and data is classified in the same way. The clearance and classification data is stored in the security labels, which are bound to the specific subjects and objects. When the system makes a decision about fulfilling a request to access an object, it is based on the clearance of the subject, the classification of the object, and the security policy of the system. The rules for how subjects access objects are made by the security officer, configured by the administrator, enforced by the operating system, and supported by security technologies Reference : Shon Harris , AIO v3 , Chapter-4 : Access Control , Page : 163-165
Which of the following access control models requires defining classification for objects?
A. Role-based access control
B. Discretionary access control
C. Identity-based access control
D. Mandatory access control
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: With mandatory access control (MAC), the authorization of a subject\’s access to an object is dependant upon labels, which indicate the subject\’s clearance, and classification of objects.
The Following answers were incorrect:
Identity-based Access Control is a type of Discretionary Access Control (DAC), they are synonymous.
Role Based Access Control (RBAC) and Rule Based Access Control (RuBAC or RBAC) are types of Non Discretionary Access Control (NDAC).
When you have two answers that are synonymous they are not the right choice for sure.
There is only one access control model that makes use of Label, Clearances, and Categories, it is Mandatory Access Control, none of the other one makes use of those items.
Reference(s) used for this question:
KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, Chapter 2: Access control systems (page 33).
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