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Question 1:

In Mandatory Access Control, sensitivity labels attached to object contain what information?

A. The item\’s classification

B. The item\’s classification and category set

C. The item\’s category

D. The items\’s need to know

Correct Answer: B

A Sensitivity label must contain at least one classification and one category set. Category set and Compartment set are synonyms, they mean the same thing. The sensitivity label must contain at least one Classification and at least one

Category. It is common in some environments for a single item to belong to multiple categories. The list of all the categories to which an item belongs is called a compartment set or category set.

The following answers are incorrect:

the item\’s classification. Is incorrect because you need a category set as well. the item\’s category. Is incorrect because category set and classification would be both be required. The item\’s need to know. Is incorrect because there is no such

thing. The need to know is indicated by the catergories the object belongs to. This is NOT the best answer.

Reference(s) used for this question:

OIG CBK, Access Control (pages 186 – 188)

AIO, 3rd Edition, Access Control (pages 162 – 163)

AIO, 4th Edittion, Access Control, pp 212-214.

Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandatory_Access_Control


Question 2:

What does it mean to say that sensitivity labels are “incomparable”?

A. The number of classification in the two labels is different.

B. Neither label contains all the classifications of the other.

C. the number of categories in the two labels are different.

D. Neither label contains all the categories of the other.

Correct Answer: D

If a category does not exist then you cannot compare it. Incomparable is when you have two disjointed sensitivity labels, that is a category in one of the labels is not in the other label. “Because neither label contains all the categories of the

other, the labels can\’t be compared.

They\’re said to be incomparable”

COMPARABILITY:

The label:

TOP SECRET [VENUS ALPHA]

is “higher” than either of the labels:

SECRET [VENUS ALPHA] TOP SECRET [VENUS]

But you can\’t really say that the label:

TOP SECRET [VENUS]

is higher than the label:

SECRET [ALPHA]

Because neither label contains all the categories of the other, the labels can\’t be compared. They\’re said to be incomparable. In a mandatory access control system, you won\’t be allowed access to a file whose label is incomparable to your

clearance.

The Multilevel Security policy uses an ordering relationship between labels known as the dominance relationship. Intuitively, we think of a label that dominates another as being “higher” than the other. Similarly, we think of a label that is

dominated by another as being “lower” than the other. The dominance relationship is used to determine permitted operations and information flows.

DOMINANCE

The dominance relationship is determined by the ordering of the Sensitivity/Clearance component of the label and the intersection of the set of Compartments.

Sample Sensitivity/Clearance ordering are:

Top Secret > Secret > Confidential > Unclassified

s3 > s2 > s1 > s0

Formally, for label one to dominate label 2 both of the following must be true:

The sensitivity/clearance of label one must be greater than or equal to the sensitivity/clearance of label two.

The intersection of the compartments of label one and label two must equal the compartments of label two.

Additionally:

Two labels are said to be equal if their sensitivity/clearance and set of compartments are exactly equal. Note that dominance includes equality. One label is said to strictly dominate the other if it dominates the other but is not equal to the

other.

Two labels are said to be incomparable if each label has at least one compartment that is not included in the other\’s set of compartments.

The dominance relationship will produce a partial ordering over all possible MLS labels, resulting in what is known as the MLS Security Lattice.

The following answers are incorrect:

The number of classification in the two labels is different. Is incorrect because the categories are what is being compared, not the classifications.

Neither label contains all the classifications of the other. Is incorrect because the categories are what is being compared, not the classifications.

the number of categories in the two labels is different. Is incorrect because it is possibe a category exists more than once in one sensitivity label and does exist in the other so they would be comparable.

Reference(s) used for this question:

OReilly – Computer Systems and Access Control (Chapter 3) http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/csb/chapter/ ch03.html and

http://rubix.com/cms/mls_dom


Question 3:

Which of the following is needed for System Accountability?

A. Audit mechanisms.

B. Documented design as laid out in the Common Criteria.

C. Authorization.

D. Formal verification of system design.

Correct Answer: A

Is a means of being able to track user actions. Through the use of audit logs and other tools the user actions are recorded and can be used at a later date to verify what actions were performed. Accountability is the ability to identify users and

to be able to track user actions.

The following answers are incorrect:

Documented design as laid out in the Common Criteria. Is incorrect because the Common Criteria is an international standard to evaluate trust and would not be a factor in System Accountability.

Authorization. Is incorrect because Authorization is granting access to subjects, just because you have authorization does not hold the subject accountable for their actions.

Formal verification of system design. Is incorrect because all you have done is to verify the system design and have not taken any steps toward system accountability.

References:

OIG CBK Glossary (page 778)


Question 4:

What is Kerberos?

A. A three-headed dog from the egyptian mythology.

B. A trusted third-party authentication protocol.

C. A security model.

D. A remote authentication dial in user server.

Correct Answer: B

Is correct because that is exactly what Kerberos is.

The following answers are incorrect:

A three-headed dog from Egyptian mythology. Is incorrect because we are dealing with Information Security and not the Egyptian mythology but the Greek Mythology.

A security model. Is incorrect because Kerberos is an authentication protocol and not just a security model.

A remote authentication dial in user server. Is incorrect because Kerberos is not a remote authentication dial in user server that would be called RADIUS.


Question 5:

The three classic ways of authenticating yourself to the computer security software are by something you know, by something you have, and by something:

A. you need.

B. non-trivial

C. you are.

D. you can get.

Correct Answer: C

This is more commonly known as biometrics and is one of the most accurate ways to authenticate an individual. The rest of the answers are incorrect because they not one of the three recognized forms for Authentication.


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Question 6:

A timely review of system access audit records would be an example of which of the basic security functions?

A. avoidance.

B. deterrence.

C. prevention.

D. detection.

Correct Answer: D

By reviewing system logs you can detect events that have occured.

The following answers are incorrect:

avoidance. This is incorrect, avoidance is a distractor. By reviewing system logs you have not avoided anything.

deterrence. This is incorrect because system logs are a history of past events. You cannot deter something that has already occurred.

prevention. This is incorrect because system logs are a history of past events. You cannot prevent something that has already occurred.


Question 7:

A confidential number used as an authentication factor to verify a user\’s identity is called a: A. PIN

B. User ID

C. Password

D. Challenge

Correct Answer: A

PIN Stands for Personal Identification Number, as the name states it is a combination of numbers.

The following answers are incorrect:

User ID This is incorrect because a Userid is not required to be a number and a Userid is only used to establish identity not verify it.

Password. This is incorrect because a password is not required to be a number, it could be any combination of characters.

Challenge. This is incorrect because a challenge is not defined as a number, it could be anything.


Question 8:

Which of the following exemplifies proper separation of duties?

A. Operators are not permitted modify the system time.

B. Programmers are permitted to use the system console.

C. Console operators are permitted to mount tapes and disks.

D. Tape operators are permitted to use the system console.

Correct Answer: A

This is an example of Separation of Duties because operators are prevented from modifying the system time which could lead to fraud. Tasks of this nature should be performed by they system administrators.

AIO defines Separation of Duties as a security principle that splits up a critical task among two or more individuals to ensure that one person cannot complete a risky task by himself.

The following answers are incorrect:

Programmers are permitted to use the system console. Is incorrect because programmers should not be permitted to use the system console, this task should be performed by operators. Allowing programmers access to the system console

could allow fraud to occur so this is not an example of Separation of Duties..

Console operators are permitted to mount tapes and disks. Is incorrect because operators should be able to mount tapes and disks so this is not an example of Separation of Duties. Tape operators are permitted to use the system console. Is

incorrect because operators should be able to use the system console so this is not an example of Separation of Duties.

References:

OIG CBK Access Control (page 98 – 101)

AIOv3 Access Control (page 182)


Question 9:

Which of the following is not a logical control when implementing logical access security?

A. access profiles.

B. userids.

C. employee badges.

D. passwords.

Correct Answer: C

Employee badges are considered Physical so would not be a logical control.

The following answers are incorrect:

userids. Is incorrect because userids are a type of logical control. access profiles. Is incorrect because access profiles are a type of logical control. passwords. Is incorrect because passwords are a type of logical control.


Question 10:

Which one of the following authentication mechanisms creates a problem for mobile users?

A. Mechanisms based on IP addresses

B. Mechanism with reusable passwords

C. one-time password mechanism.

D. challenge response mechanism.

Correct Answer: A

Anything based on a fixed IP address would be a problem for mobile users because their location and its associated IP address can change from one time to the next. Many providers will assign a new IP every time the device would be

restarted. For example an insurance adjuster using a laptop to file claims online. He goes to a different client each time and the address changes every time he connects to the ISP.

NOTE FROM CLEMENT:

The term MOBILE in this case is synonymous with Road Warriors where a user is contantly traveling and changing location. With smartphone today that may not be an issue but it would be an issue for laptops or WIFI tablets. Within a carrier

network the IP will tend to be the same and would change rarely. So this question is more applicable to devices that are not cellular devices but in some cases this issue could affect cellular devices as well.

The following answers are incorrect:

mechanism with reusable password. This is incorrect because reusable password mechanism would not present a problem for mobile users. They are the least secure and change only at specific interval.

one-time password mechanism. This is incorrect because a one-time password mechanism would not present a problem for mobile users. Many are based on a clock and not on the IP address of the user.

challenge response mechanism. This is incorrect because challenge response mechanism would not present a problem for mobile users.


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