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Question 1:

What does it mean to say that sensitivity labels are “incomparable”?

A. The number of classification in the two labels is different.

B. Neither label contains all the classifications of the other.

C. the number of categories in the two labels are different.

D. Neither label contains all the categories of the other.

Correct Answer: D

If a category does not exist then you cannot compare it. Incomparable is when you have two disjointed sensitivity labels, that is a category in one of the labels is not in the other label. “Because neither label contains all the categories of the

other, the labels can\’t be compared.

They\’re said to be incomparable”

COMPARABILITY:

The label:

TOP SECRET [VENUS ALPHA]

is “higher” than either of the labels:

SECRET [VENUS ALPHA] TOP SECRET [VENUS]

But you can\’t really say that the label:

TOP SECRET [VENUS]

is higher than the label:

SECRET [ALPHA]

Because neither label contains all the categories of the other, the labels can\’t be compared. They\’re said to be incomparable. In a mandatory access control system, you won\’t be allowed access to a file whose label is incomparable to your

clearance.

The Multilevel Security policy uses an ordering relationship between labels known as the dominance relationship. Intuitively, we think of a label that dominates another as being “higher” than the other. Similarly, we think of a label that is

dominated by another as being “lower” than the other. The dominance relationship is used to determine permitted operations and information flows.

DOMINANCE

The dominance relationship is determined by the ordering of the Sensitivity/Clearance component of the label and the intersection of the set of Compartments.

Sample Sensitivity/Clearance ordering are:

Top Secret > Secret > Confidential > Unclassified

s3 > s2 > s1 > s0

Formally, for label one to dominate label 2 both of the following must be true:

The sensitivity/clearance of label one must be greater than or equal to the sensitivity/clearance of label two.

The intersection of the compartments of label one and label two must equal the compartments of label two.

Additionally:

Two labels are said to be equal if their sensitivity/clearance and set of compartments are exactly equal. Note that dominance includes equality. One label is said to strictly dominate the other if it dominates the other but is not equal to the

other.

Two labels are said to be incomparable if each label has at least one compartment that is not included in the other\’s set of compartments.

The dominance relationship will produce a partial ordering over all possible MLS labels, resulting in what is known as the MLS Security Lattice.

The following answers are incorrect:

The number of classification in the two labels is different. Is incorrect because the categories are what is being compared, not the classifications.

Neither label contains all the classifications of the other. Is incorrect because the categories are what is being compared, not the classifications.

the number of categories in the two labels is different. Is incorrect because it is possibe a category exists more than once in one sensitivity label and does exist in the other so they would be comparable.

Reference(s) used for this question:

OReilly – Computer Systems and Access Control (Chapter 3) http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/csb/chapter/ ch03.html and

http://rubix.com/cms/mls_dom


Question 2:

Which of the following is true about Kerberos?

A. It utilizes public key cryptography.

B. It encrypts data after a ticket is granted, but passwords are exchanged in plain text.

C. It depends upon symmetric ciphers.

D. It is a second party authentication system.

Correct Answer: C

Kerberos depends on secret keys (symmetric ciphers). Kerberos is a third party authentication protocol. It was designed and developed in the mid 1980\’s by MIT. It is considered open source but is copyrighted and owned by MIT. It relies on

the user\’s secret keys. The password is used to encrypt and decrypt the keys.

The following answers are incorrect:

It utilizes public key cryptography. Is incorrect because Kerberos depends on secret keys (symmetric ciphers).

It encrypts data after a ticket is granted, but passwords are exchanged in plain text. Is incorrect because the passwords are not exchanged but used for encryption and decryption of the keys.

It is a second party authentication system. Is incorrect because Kerberos is a third party authentication system, you authenticate to the third party (Kerberos) and not the system you are accessing.

References:

MIT http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/

Wikipedi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerberos_(protocol)

OIG CBK Access Control (pages 181 – 184)

AIOv3 Access Control (pages 151 – 155)


Question 3:

Which of the following is needed for System Accountability?

A. Audit mechanisms.

B. Documented design as laid out in the Common Criteria.

C. Authorization.

D. Formal verification of system design.

Correct Answer: A

Is a means of being able to track user actions. Through the use of audit logs and other tools the user actions are recorded and can be used at a later date to verify what actions were performed. Accountability is the ability to identify users and

to be able to track user actions.

The following answers are incorrect:

Documented design as laid out in the Common Criteria. Is incorrect because the Common Criteria is an international standard to evaluate trust and would not be a factor in System Accountability.

Authorization. Is incorrect because Authorization is granting access to subjects, just because you have authorization does not hold the subject accountable for their actions.

Formal verification of system design. Is incorrect because all you have done is to verify the system design and have not taken any steps toward system accountability.

References:

OIG CBK Glossary (page 778)


Question 4:

What is Kerberos?

A. A three-headed dog from the egyptian mythology.

B. A trusted third-party authentication protocol.

C. A security model.

D. A remote authentication dial in user server.

Correct Answer: B

Is correct because that is exactly what Kerberos is.

The following answers are incorrect:

A three-headed dog from Egyptian mythology. Is incorrect because we are dealing with Information Security and not the Egyptian mythology but the Greek Mythology.

A security model. Is incorrect because Kerberos is an authentication protocol and not just a security model.

A remote authentication dial in user server. Is incorrect because Kerberos is not a remote authentication dial in user server that would be called RADIUS.


Question 5:

A timely review of system access audit records would be an example of which of the basic security functions?

A. avoidance.

B. deterrence.

C. prevention.

D. detection.

Correct Answer: D

By reviewing system logs you can detect events that have occured.

The following answers are incorrect:

avoidance. This is incorrect, avoidance is a distractor. By reviewing system logs you have not avoided anything.

deterrence. This is incorrect because system logs are a history of past events. You cannot deter something that has already occurred.

prevention. This is incorrect because system logs are a history of past events. You cannot prevent something that has already occurred.


SSCP PDF DumpsSSCP Study GuideSSCP Exam Questions

Question 6:

A confidential number used as an authentication factor to verify a user\’s identity is called a: A. PIN

B. User ID

C. Password

D. Challenge

Correct Answer: A

PIN Stands for Personal Identification Number, as the name states it is a combination of numbers.

The following answers are incorrect:

User ID This is incorrect because a Userid is not required to be a number and a Userid is only used to establish identity not verify it.

Password. This is incorrect because a password is not required to be a number, it could be any combination of characters.

Challenge. This is incorrect because a challenge is not defined as a number, it could be anything.


Question 7:

Which of the following exemplifies proper separation of duties?

A. Operators are not permitted modify the system time.

B. Programmers are permitted to use the system console.

C. Console operators are permitted to mount tapes and disks.

D. Tape operators are permitted to use the system console.

Correct Answer: A

This is an example of Separation of Duties because operators are prevented from modifying the system time which could lead to fraud. Tasks of this nature should be performed by they system administrators.

AIO defines Separation of Duties as a security principle that splits up a critical task among two or more individuals to ensure that one person cannot complete a risky task by himself.

The following answers are incorrect:

Programmers are permitted to use the system console. Is incorrect because programmers should not be permitted to use the system console, this task should be performed by operators. Allowing programmers access to the system console

could allow fraud to occur so this is not an example of Separation of Duties..

Console operators are permitted to mount tapes and disks. Is incorrect because operators should be able to mount tapes and disks so this is not an example of Separation of Duties. Tape operators are permitted to use the system console. Is

incorrect because operators should be able to use the system console so this is not an example of Separation of Duties.

References:

OIG CBK Access Control (page 98 – 101)

AIOv3 Access Control (page 182)


Question 8:

Organizations should consider which of the following first before allowing external access to their LANs via the Internet?

A. plan for implementing workstation locking mechanisms.

B. plan for protecting the modem pool.

C. plan for providing the user with his account usage information.

D. plan for considering proper authentication options.

Correct Answer: D

Before a LAN is connected to the Internet, you need to determine what the access controls mechanisms are to be used, this would include how you are going to authenticate individuals that may access your network externally through access

control.

The following answers are incorrect:

plan for implementing workstation locking mechanisms. This is incorrect because locking the workstations have no impact on the LAN or Internet access.

plan for protecting the modem pool. This is incorrect because protecting the modem pool has no impact on the LAN or Internet access, it just protects the modem.

plan for providing the user with his account usage information. This is incorrect because the question asks what should be done first. While important your primary concern should be focused on security.


Question 9:

Kerberos can prevent which one of the following attacks?

A. tunneling attack.

B. playback (replay) attack.

C. destructive attack.

D. process attack.

Correct Answer: B

Each ticket in Kerberos has a timestamp and are subject to time expiration to help prevent these types of attacks.

The following answers are incorrect:

tunneling attack. This is incorrect because a tunneling attack is an attempt to bypass security and access low-level systems. Kerberos cannot totally prevent these types of attacks. destructive attack. This is incorrect because depending on

the type of destructive attack, Kerberos cannot prevent someone from physically destroying a server.

process attack. This is incorrect because with Kerberos cannot prevent an authorzied individuals from running processes.


Question 10:

A department manager has read access to the salaries of the employees in his/her department but not to the salaries of employees in other departments. A database security mechanism that enforces this policy would typically be said to provide which of the following?

A. Content-dependent access control

B. Context-dependent access control

C. Least privileges access control

D. Ownership-based access control

Correct Answer: A

When access control is based on the content of an object, it is considered to be content dependent access control.

Content-dependent access control is based on the content itself.

The following answers are incorrect:

context-dependent access control. Is incorrect because this type of control is based on what the context is, facts about the data rather than what the object contains. least privileges access control. Is incorrect because this is based on the

least amount of rights needed to perform their jobs and not based on what is contained in the database. ownership-based access control. Is incorrect because this is based on the owner of the data and and not based on what is contained in

the database.

References:

OIG CBK Access Control (page 191)


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