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A new backup connection is being deployed on a remote site router. The stability of the connection
has been a concern. In order to provide more information to EIGRP regarding this interface, you
wish to incorporate the “reliability” cost metric in the EIGRP calculation with the command metric
weights 1 0 1 0 1.
What impact will this modification on the remote site router have for other existing EIGRP
neighborships from the same EIGRP domain?
A. Existing neighbors will immediately begin using the new metric.
B. Existing neighbors will use the new metric after clearing the EIGRP neighbors.
C. Existing neighbors will resync, maintaining the neighbor relationship.
D. All existing neighbor relationships will go down.
Refer to the exhibit.
R1 has an EBGP session to ISP 1 and an EBGP session to ISP 2. R1 receives the same prefixes
through both links.
Which configuration should be applied so that the link between R1 and ISP 2 will be preferred for
outgoing traffic (R1 to ISP 2)?
A. Increase local preference on R1 for received routes
B. Decrease local preference on R1 for received routes
C. Increase MED on ISP 2 for received routes
D. Decrease MED on ISP 2 for received routes
Local preference is an indication to the AS about which path has preference to exit the AS in order
to reach a certain network. A path with higher local preference is preferred more. The default value
of preference is 100.
Which statement is true about TCN propagation?
A. The originator of the TCN immediately floods this information through the network.
B. The TCN propagation is a two step process.
C. A TCN is generated and sent to the root bridge.
D. The root bridge must flood this information throughout the network.
New Topology Change Mechanisms
When an 802.1D bridge detects a topology change, it uses a reliable mechanism to first notify the
This is shown in this diagram:
Once the root bridge is aware of a change in the topology of the network, it sets the TC flag on the
BPDUs it sends out, which are then relayed to all the bridges in the network. When a bridge
receives a BPDU with the TC flag bit set, it reduces its bridging-table aging time to forward delay
seconds. This ensures a relatively quick flush of stale information. Refer to Understanding
Spanning-Tree Protocol Topology Changes for more information on this process. This topology
change mechanism is deeply remodeled in RSTP. Both the detection of a topology change and its
propagation through the network evolve.
Topology Change Detection
In RSTP, only non-edge ports that move to the forwarding state cause a topology change. This
means that a loss of connectivity is not considered as a topology change any more, contrary to
802.1D (that is, a port that moves to blocking no longer generates a TC). When a RSTP bridge
detects a topology change, these occur:
It starts the TC While timer with a value equal to twice the hello-time for all its non-edge
designated ports and its root port, if necessary.
It flushes the MAC addresses associated with all these ports.
Note: As long as the TC While timer runs on a port, the BPDUs sent out of that port have the TC
BPDUs are also sent on the root port while the timer is active.
Topology Change Propagation
When a bridge receives a BPDU with the TC bit set from a neighbor, these occur:
It clears the MAC addresses learned on all its ports, except the one that receives the topology
It starts the TC While timer and sends BPDUs with TC set on all its designated ports and root port
(RSTP no longer uses the specific TCN BPDU, unless a legacy bridge needs to be notified).
This way, the TCN floods very quickly across the whole network. The TC propagation is now a one
step process. In fact, the initiator of the topology change floods this information throughout the
network, as opposed to 802.1D where only the root did. This mechanism is much faster than the
802.1D equivalent. There is no need to wait for the root bridge to be notified and then maintain the
topology change state for the whole network for seconds.
In just a few seconds, or a small multiple of hello-times, most of the entries in the CAM tables of
the entire network (VLAN) flush. This approach results in potentially more temporary flooding, but
on the other hand it clears potential stale information that prevents rapid connectivity restitution.
Which two statements are true about traffic shaping? (Choose two.)
A. Out-of-profile packets are queued.
B. It causes TCP retransmits.
C. Marking/remarking is not supported.
D. It does not respond to BECN and ForeSight Messages.
E. It uses a single/two-bucket mechanism for metering.
Which three options are considered in the spanning-tree decision process? (Choose three.)
A. lowest root bridge ID
B. lowest path cost to root bridge
C. lowest sender bridge ID
D. highest port ID
E. highest root bridge ID
F. highest path cost to root bridge
Configuration bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) are sent between switches for each port.
Switches use s four step process to save a copy of the best BPDU seen on every port. When a
port receives a better BPDU, it stops sending them. If the BPDUs stop arriving for 20 seconds
(default), it begins sending them again.
Step 1 Lowest Root Bridge ID (BID)
Step 2 Lowest Path Cost to Root Bridge
Step 3 Lowest Sender BID
Step 4 Lowest Port ID
Cisco General Networking Theory Quick Reference Sheets
Which three combinations are valid LACP configurations that will set up a channel? (Choose
Which two options does Cisco PfR use to control the entrance link selection with inbound
optimization? (Choose two.)
A. Prepend extra AS hops to the BGP prefix.
B. Advertise more specific BGP prefixes (longer mask).
C. Add (prepend) one or more communities to the prefix that is advertised by BGP.
D. Have BGP dampen the prefix.
Explanation: PfR Entrance Link Selection Control Techniques
The PfR BGP inbound optimization feature introduced the ability to influence inbound traffic. A
network advertises reachability of its inside prefixes to the Internet using eBGP advertisements to
its ISPs. If the same prefix is advertised to more than one ISP, then the network is multihoming.
PfR BGP inbound optimization works best with multihomed networks, but it can also be used with
a network that has multiple connections to the same ISP. To implement BGP inbound
optimization, PfR manipulates eBGP advertisements to influence the best entrance selection for
traffic bound for inside prefixes. The benefit of implementing the best entrance selection is limited
to a network that has more than one ISP connection.
To enforce an entrance link selection, PfR offers the following methods:
BGP Autonomous System Number Prepend When an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP) due
to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS Releases 15.2(1) T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a
best entrance for an inside prefix, extra autonomous system hops are prepended one at a time (up
to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP advertisement over the other entrances. In Cisco
IOS Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out-of policy
(OOP) due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix,
six extra autonomous system hops are prepended immediately to the inside prefix BGP
advertisement over the other entrances. The extra autonomous system hops on the other
entrances increase the probability that the best entrance will be used for the inside prefix. When
the entrance link is OOP due to unreachable or loss reasons, six extra autonomous system hops
are added immediately to allow the software to quickly move the traffic away from the old entrance
link. This is the default method PfR uses to control an inside prefix, and no user configuration is
BGP Autonomous System Number Community Prepend
When an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP) due to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS
(1)T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, a BGP prepend
community is attached one at a time (up to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP
advertisement from the network to another autonomous system such as an ISP. In Cisco IOS
Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP)
due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, six BGP
prepend communities are attached to the inside prefix BGP advertisement. The BGP prepend
community will increase the number of autonomous system hops in the advertisement of the
inside prefix from the ISP to its peers. Autonomous system prepend BGP community is the
preferred method to be used for PfR BGP inbound optimization because there is no risk of the
local ISP filtering the extra autonomous system hops. There are some issues, for example, not all
ISPs support the BGP prepend community, ISP policies may ignore or modify the autonomous
system hops, and a transit ISP may filter the autonomous system path. If you use this method of
inbound optimization and a change is made to an autonomous system, you must issue an
outbound reconfiguration using the “clear ip bgp” command.
Refer to the exhibit.
Which path is selected as best path?
A. path 1, because it is learned from IGP B.
path 1, because the metric is the lowest C.
path 2, because it is external
D. path 2, because it has the higher router ID
What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community
attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?
A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.
B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.
C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.
D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.
Refer to the exhibit.
R1 is not learning about the 172.16.10.0 subnet from the BGP neighbor R2 (220.127.116.11).
What can be done so that R1 will learn about this network?
A. Disable auto-summary on R2.
B. Configure an explicit network command for the 172.16.10.0 subnet on R2.
C. Subnet information cannot be passed between IBGP peers.
D. Disable auto-summary on R1.
By default, BGP does not accept subnets redistributed from IGP. To advertise and carry subnet
routes in BGP, use an explicit network command or the no auto-summary command. If you disable
auto-summarization and have not entered a network command, you will not advertise network
routes for networks with subnet routes unless they contain a summary route.
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