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Refer to the exhibit.
R1 has an EBGP session to ISP 1 and an EBGP session to ISP 2. R1 receives the same prefixes
through both links.
Which configuration should be applied so that the link between R1 and ISP 2 will be preferred for
outgoing traffic (R1 to ISP 2)?
A. Increase local preference on R1 for received routes
B. Decrease local preference on R1 for received routes
C. Increase MED on ISP 2 for received routes
D. Decrease MED on ISP 2 for received routes
Local preference is an indication to the AS about which path has preference to exit the AS in order
to reach a certain network. A path with higher local preference is preferred more. The default value
of preference is 100.
Refer to the exhibit.
A small enterprise connects its office to two ISPs, using separate T1 links. A static route is used
for the default route, pointing to both interfaces with a different administrative distance, so that one
of the default routes is preferred.
Recently the primary link has been upgraded to a new 10 Mb/s Ethernet link.
After a few weeks, they experienced a failure. The link did not pass traffic, but the primary static
route remained active. They lost their Internet connectivity, even though the backup link was
Which two possible solutions can be implemented to avoid this situation in the future? (Choose
A. Implement HSRP link tracking on the branch router R1.
B. Use a track object with an IP SLA probe for the static route on R1.
C. Track the link state of the Ethernet link using a track object on R1.
D. Use a routing protocol between R1 and the upstream ISP.
Interface tracking allows you to specify another interface on the router for the HSRP process to
monitor in order to alter the HSRP priority for a given group.
If the specified interface\’s line protocol goes down, the HSRP priority of this router is reduced,
allowing another HSRP router with higher priority can become active (if it has preemption
To configure HSRP interface tracking, use the standby [group] track interface [priority] command.
When multiple tracked interfaces are down, the priority is reduced by a cumulative amount. If you
explicitly set the decrement value, then the value is decreased by that amount if that interface is
down, and decrements are cumulative. If you do not set an explicit decrement value, then the
value is decreased by 10 for each interface that goes down, and decrements are cumulative.
The following example uses the following configuration, with the default decrement value of 10.
Note: When an HSRP group number is not specified, the default group number is group 0.
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
standby ip 10.1.1.3
standby priority 110
standby track serial0
standby track serial1
The HSRP behavior with this configuration is:
0 interfaces down = no decrease (priority is 110)
1 interface down = decrease by 10 (priority becomes100)
2 interfaces down = decrease by 10 (priority becomes 90)
Which statement is true about loop guard?
A. Loop guard only operates on interfaces that are considered point-to-point by the spanning tree.
B. Loop guard only operates on root ports.
C. Loop guard only operates on designated ports.
D. Loop guard only operates on edge ports.
Understanding How Loop Guard Works
Unidirectional link failures may cause a root port or alternate port to become designated as root if
BPDUs are absent. Some software failures may introduce temporary loops in the network. Loop
guard checks if a root port or an alternate root port receives BPDUs. If the port is receiving
BPDUs, loop guard puts the port into an inconsistent state until it starts receiving BPDUs again.
Loop guard isolates the failure and lets spanning tree converge to a stable topology without the
failed link or bridge.
You can enable loop guard per port with the set spantree guard loop command.
Note When you are in MST mode, you can set all the ports on a switch with the set spantree
global-defaults loop-guard command.
When you enable loop guard, it is automatically applied to all of the active instances or VLANs to
which that port belongs. When you disable loop guard, it is disabled for the specified ports.
Disabling loop guard moves all loop-inconsistent ports to the listening state.
If you enable loop guard on a channel and the first link becomes unidirectional, loop guard blocks
the entire channel until the affected port is removed from the channel. Figure 8-6 shows loop
guard in a triangle switch configuration.
Figure 8-6 Triangle Switch Configuration with Loop Guard
Figure 8-6 illustrates the following configuration:
Switches A and B are distribution switches.
Switch C is an access switch.
Loop guard is enabled on ports 3/1 and 3/2 on Switches A, B, and C.
Use loop guard only in topologies where there are blocked ports. Topologies that have no blocked
ports, which are loop free, do not need to enable this feature. Enabling loop guard on a root switch
has no effect but provides protection when a root switch becomes a nonroot switch.
Follow these guidelines when using loop guard:
Do not enable loop guard on PortFast-enabled or dynamic VLAN ports.
Do not enable PortFast on loop guard-enabled ports.
Do not enable loop guard if root guard is enabled.
Do not enable loop guard on ports that are connected to a shared link.
Note: We recommend that you enable loop guard on root ports and alternate root ports on access
Loop guard interacts with other features as follows:
Loop guard does not affect the functionality of UplinkFast or BackboneFast.
Root guard forces a port to always be designated as the root port. Loop guard is effective only if
the port is a root port or an alternate port. Do not enable loop guard and root guard on a port at the
PortFast transitions a port into a forwarding state immediately when a link is established. Because
a PortFast-enabled port will not be a root port or alternate port, loop guard and PortFast cannot be
configured on the same port. Assigning dynamic VLAN membership for the port requires that the
port is PortFast enabled. Do not configure a loop guard-enabled port with dynamic VLAN
If your network has a type-inconsistent port or a PVID-inconsistent port, all BPDUs are dropped
until the misconfiguration is corrected. The port transitions out of the inconsistent state after the
message age expires. Loop guard ignores the message age expiration on type-inconsistent ports
and PVID-inconsistent ports. If the port is already blocked by loop guard, misconfigured BPDUs
that are received on the port make loop guard recover, but the port is moved into the type-
inconsistent state or PVID-inconsistent state.
In high-availability switch configurations, if a port is put into the blocked state by loop guard, it
remains blocked even after a switchover to the redundant supervisor engine. The newly activated
supervisor engine recovers the port only after receiving a BPDU on that port.
Loop guard uses the ports known to spanning tree. Loop guard can take advantage of logical ports
provided by the Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP). However, to form a channel, all the physical
ports grouped in the channel must have compatible configurations. PAgP enforces uniform
configurations of root guard or loop guard on all the physical ports to form a channel.
These caveats apply to loop guard:
Which command is used to enable EtherChannel hashing for Layer 3 IP and Layer 4 port-based
A. mpls ip cef
B. port-channel ip cef
C. mpls ip port-channel cef
D. port-channel load balance
E. mpls ip load-balance
F. ip cef EtherChannel channel-id XOR L4
G. ip cef connection exchange
What is the first thing that happens when IPv6 is enabled on an interface on a host?
A. A router solicitation is sent on that interface.
B. There is a duplicate address detection on the host interface.
C. The link local address is assigned on the host interface.
D. A neighbor redirect message is sent on the host interface.
Duplicate address detection (DAD) is used to verify that an IPv6 home address is unique on the
LAN before assigning the address to a physical interface (for example, QDIO). z/OS
Communications Server responds to other nodes doing DAD for IP addresses assigned to the
What is the flooding scope of an OSPFv3 LSA, if the value of the S2 bit is set to 1 and the S1 bit is
set to 0?
A. link local
B. area wide
C. AS wide
The Type 1 router LSA is now link local and the Type 2 Network LSA is AS Wide
S2 and S1 indicate the LSA\’s flooding scope. Table 9-1 shows the possible values of these two
bits and the associated flooding scopes.
Table 9-1 S bits in the OSPFv3 LSA Link State Type field and their associated flooding scopes
LSA Function Code, the last 13 bits of the LS Type field, corresponds to the OSPFv2 Type field.
Table 9-2 shows the common LSA types used by OSPFv3 and the values of their corresponding
LS Types. If you decode the hex values, you will see that the default U bit of all of them is 0. The S
bits of all LSAs except two indicate area scope. Of the remaining two, AS External LSAs have an
AS flooding scope and Link LSAs have a linklocal flooding scope. Most of the OSPFv3 LSAs have
functional counterparts in OSPFv2; these OSPFv2 LSAs and their types are also shown in Table
Table 9-2 OSPFv3 LSA types and their OSPFv2 counterparts
How will EIGRPv6 react if there is an IPv6 subnet mask mismatch between the Global Unicast
addresses on a point-to-point link?
A. EIGRPv6 will form a neighbor relationship.
B. EIGRPv6 will not form a neighbor relationship.
C. EIGRPv6 will form a neighbor relationship, but with the log MSG: “EIGRPv6 neighbor not on a
D. EIGRPv6 will form a neighbor relationship, but routes learned from that neighbor will not be
installed in the routing table.
Answer: A Explanation:
Which two OSPF LSA types are new in OSPF version 3? (Choose two.)
B. NSSA external
C. Network link
D. Intra-area prefix
E. AS domain
New LSA Types
OSPFv3 carries over the seven basic LSA types we\’re familiar with from OSPFv2. However, the
type 1 and 2 LSAs have been re-purposed, as will be discussed in a bit. OSPFv3 also introduces
two new LSA types: Link and Intra-area Prefix.
In order to maintain security, with which hop count are IPv6 neighbor discovery packets sent?
Which command can be used on a PE router to connect to a CE router (22.214.171.124) in VRF red?
A. telnet 126.96.36.199 /vrf-source red
B. telnet 188.8.131.52 source /vrf red
C. telnet 184.108.40.206 /source vrf red
D. telnet 220.127.116.11 /vrf red
E. telnet 18.104.22.168 vrf red
Telnetting can be done through the VRF using the Management Ethernet interface. In the
following example, the router telnets to 172.17.1.1 through the Management Ethernet interface
Router# telnet 172.17.1.1 /vrf Mgmt-intf
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