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QUESTION NO:1

Which two commands are required to enable multicast on a router, knowing that the receivers only

support IGMPv2? (Choose two.)

A. ip pim rp-address

B. ip pim ssm

C. ip pim sparse-mode

D. ip pim passive

Answer: A,C

Explanation:

Sparse mode logic (pull mode) is the opposite of Dense mode logic (push mode), in Dense mode

it is supposed that in every network there is someone who is requesting the multicast traffic so

PIM-DM routers begin by flooding the multicast traffic out of all their interfaces except those from

where a prune message is received to eliminate the


QUESTION NO:9

Which two are effects of connecting a network segment that is running 802.1D to a network

segment that is running 802.1w? (Choose two.)

A. The entire network switches to 802.1D and generates BPDUs to determine root bridge status. B.

A migration delay of three seconds occurs when the port that is connected to the 802.1D bridge

comes up.

C. The entire network reconverges and a unique root bridge for the 802.1D segment, and a root

bridge for the 802.1w segment, is chosen.

D. The first hop 802.1w switch that is connected to the 802.1D runs entirely in 802.1D compatibility

mode and converts the BPDUs to either 802.1D or 802.1w BPDUs to the 802.1D or 802.1w

segments of the network.

E. Classic 802.1D timers, such as forward delay and max-age, will only be used as a backup, and

will not be necessary if point-to-point links and edge ports are properly identified and set by the

administrator.

Answer: B,E

Explanation:

Each port maintains a variable that defines the protocol to run on the corresponding segment. A

migration delay timer of three seconds also starts when the port comes up. When this timer runs,

the current STP or RSTP mode associated to the port is locked. As soon as the migration delay

expires, the port adapts to the mode that corresponds to the next BPDU it receives. If the port

changes its mode of operation as a result of a BPDU received, the migration delay restarts.

802.1D works by the concept that the protocol had to wait for the network to converge before it

transitioned a port into the forwarding state. With Rapid Spanning Tree it does not have to rely on

any timers, the only variables that that it relies on is edge ports and link types.

Any uplink port that has an alternate port to the root can be directly placed into the forwarding

state (This is the Rapid convergence that you speak of “restored quickly when RSTP is already in

use?”). This is what happened when you disconnected the primary look; the port that was ALT,

moved to FWD immediately, but the switch also still needs to create a BDU with the TC bit set to

notify the rest of the network that a topology has occurred and all non-edge designated ports will

transition to BLK, LRN, and then FWD to ensure there are no loops in the rest of the network. This

is why if you have a host on a switchport, and you know for a fact that it is only one host, enable

portfast to configure the port as an edgeport so that it does not have to transition to all the STP

states.

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cfa.shtml


QUESTION NO:16

In 802.1s, how is the VLAN to instance mapping represented in the BPDU?

A. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 16-byte field in the MST BPDU.

B. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 12-byte field in the MST BPDU.

C. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 16-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.

D. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 12-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.

Answer: C

Explanation:

MST Configuration and MST Region

Each switch running MST in the network has a single MST configuration that consists of these

three attributes:

1. An alphanumeric configuration name (32 bytes)

2. A configuration revision number (two bytes)

3. A 4096-element table that associates each of the potential 4096 VLANs supported on the

chassis to a given instance.

In order to be part of a common MST region, a group of switches must share the same

configuration attributes.

It is up to the network administrator to properly propagate the configuration throughout the region.

Currently, this step is only possible by the means of the command line interface (CLI) or through

Simple Network

Management Protocol (SNMP). Other methods can be envisioned, as the IEEE specification does

not explicitly mention how to accomplish that step.

Note: If for any reason two switches differ on one or more configuration attribute, the switches are

part of different regions. For more information refer to the Region Boundary section of this

document.

Region Boundary

In order to ensure consistent VLAN-to-instance mapping, it is necessary for the protocol to be able

to exactly identify the boundaries of the regions. For that purpose, the characteristics of the region

are included in the BPDUs. The exact VLANs-to-instance mapping is not propagated in the BPDU,

because the switches only need to know whether they are in the same region as a neighbor.

Therefore, only a digest of the VLANs-toinstance mapping table is sent, along with the revision

number and the name. Once a switch receives a BPDU, the switch extracts the digest (a

numerical value derived from the VLAN-to-instance mapping table through a mathematical

function) and compares this digest with its own computed digest. If the digests differ, the port on

which the BPDU was received is at the boundary of a region.

In generic terms, a port is at the boundary of a region if the designated bridge on its segment is in

a different region or if it receives legacy 802.1d BPDUs. In this diagram, the port on B1 is at the

boundary of region A, whereas the ports on B2 and B3 are internal to region B:

MST Instances

According to the IEEE 802.1s specification, an MST bridge must be able to handle at least these

two instances:

One Internal Spanning Tree (IST)

One or more Multiple Spanning Tree Instance(s) (MSTIs)

The terminology continues to evolve, as 802.1s is actually in a pre-standard phase. It is likely

these names will change in the final release of 802.1s. The Cisco implementation supports 16

instances: one IST (instance 0) and 15 MSTIs.

show vtp status

Cisco switches “show vtp status” Field Descriptions has a MD5 digest field that is a 16-byte

checksum of the

VTP configuration as shown below

Router# show vtp status

VTP Version: 3 (capable)

Configuration Revision: 1

Maximum VLANs supported locally: 1005

Number of existing VLANs: 37

VTP Operating Mode: Server

VTP Domain Name: [smartports]

VTP Pruning Mode: Disabled

VTP V2 Mode: Enabled

VTP Traps Generation: Disabled

MD5 digest : 0x26 0xEE 0x0D 0x84 0x73 0x0E 0x1B 0x69

Configuration last modified by 172.20.52.19 at 7-25-08 14:33:43

Local updater ID is 172.20.52.19 on interface Gi5/2 (first layer3 interface fou)

VTP version running: 2

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cfc.shtml

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios-xml/ios/lanswitch/command/lsw-cr-book.pdf


QUESTION NO:17

Which three combinations are valid LACP configurations that will set up a channel? (Choose

three.)

A. On/On

B. On/Auto

C. Passive/Active

D. Desirable/Auto

E. Active/Active

F. Desirable/Desirable

Answer: A,C,E

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:19

Which two options does Cisco PfR use to control the entrance link selection with inbound

optimization? (Choose two.)

A. Prepend extra AS hops to the BGP prefix.

B. Advertise more specific BGP prefixes (longer mask).

C. Add (prepend) one or more communities to the prefix that is advertised by BGP.

D. Have BGP dampen the prefix.

Answer: A,C

Explanation: PfR Entrance Link Selection Control Techniques

The PfR BGP inbound optimization feature introduced the ability to influence inbound traffic. A

network advertises reachability of its inside prefixes to the Internet using eBGP advertisements to

its ISPs. If the same prefix is advertised to more than one ISP, then the network is multihoming.

PfR BGP inbound optimization works best with multihomed networks, but it can also be used with

a network that has multiple connections to the same ISP. To implement BGP inbound

optimization, PfR manipulates eBGP advertisements to influence the best entrance selection for

traffic bound for inside prefixes. The benefit of implementing the best entrance selection is limited

to a network that has more than one ISP connection.

To enforce an entrance link selection, PfR offers the following methods:

BGP Autonomous System Number Prepend When an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP) due

to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS Releases 15.2(1) T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a

best entrance for an inside prefix, extra autonomous system hops are prepended one at a time (up

to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP advertisement over the other entrances. In Cisco

IOS Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out-of policy

(OOP) due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix,

six extra autonomous system hops are prepended immediately to the inside prefix BGP

advertisement over the other entrances. The extra autonomous system hops on the other

entrances increase the probability that the best entrance will be used for the inside prefix. When

the entrance link is OOP due to unreachable or loss reasons, six extra autonomous system hops

are added immediately to allow the software to quickly move the traffic away from the old entrance

link. This is the default method PfR uses to control an inside prefix, and no user configuration is

required.

BGP Autonomous System Number Community Prepend

When an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP) due to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS

Releases 15.2

(1)T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, a BGP prepend

community is attached one at a time (up to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP

advertisement from the network to another autonomous system such as an ISP. In Cisco IOS

Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP)

due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, six BGP

prepend communities are attached to the inside prefix BGP advertisement. The BGP prepend

community will increase the number of autonomous system hops in the advertisement of the

inside prefix from the ISP to its peers. Autonomous system prepend BGP community is the

preferred method to be used for PfR BGP inbound optimization because there is no risk of the

local ISP filtering the extra autonomous system hops. There are some issues, for example, not all

ISPs support the BGP prepend community, ISP policies may ignore or modify the autonomous

system hops, and a transit ISP may filter the autonomous system path. If you use this method of

inbound optimization and a change is made to an autonomous system, you must issue an

outbound reconfiguration using the “clear ip bgp” command.

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios-xml/ios/pfr/configuration/15-2s/pfr-bgp-inbound.html#GUID-

F8A59E241D59-

4924-827D-B23B43D9A8E0

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps8787/products_ios_protocol_option_home.html


400-101 VCE Dumps400-101 Practice Test400-101 Braindumps

QUESTION NO:22

Refer to the exhibit.

Which path is selected as best path?

A. path 1, because it is learned from IGP B.

path 1, because the metric is the lowest C.

path 2, because it is external

D. path 2, because it has the higher router ID

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:23

What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community

attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?

A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.

B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.

C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.

D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:26

Refer to the exhibit.

Why is AS 65333 in parentheses?

A. It is an external AS.

B. It is a confederation AS.

C. It is the AS of a route reflector.

D. It is our own AS.

E. A route map has been applied to this route.

F. The BGP next hop is unreachable.

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:39

Which two statements are correct about Nonstop Forwarding? (Choose two.)

A. It allows the standby RP to take control of the device after a hardware or software fault on the

active RP.

B. It is a Layer 3 function that works with SSO to minimize the amount of time a network is

unavailable to users following a switchover.

C. It is supported by the implementation of EIGRP, OSPF, RIPv2, and BGP protocols.

D. It synchronizes startup configuration, startup variables, and running configuration.

E. The main objective of NSF is to continue forwarding IP packets following a switchover.

F. Layer 2 802.1w or 802.1s must be used, as 802.1d cannot process the Layer 2 changes.

G. Routing protocol tuning parameters must be the same as the NSF parameters, or failover will

be inconsistent.

Answer: B,E

Explanation: Explanation

Cisco Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) works with the Stateful Switchover (SSO) feature in Cisco IOS

software. NSF works with SSO to minimize the amount of time a network is unavailable to its

users following a switchover. The main objective of Cisco NSF is to continue forwarding IP

packets following a Route Processor (RP) switchover.

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2s/feature/guide/fsnsf20s.html


QUESTION NO:42

Which type of domains is interconnected using Multicast Source Discovery Protocol?

A. PIM-SM

B. PIM-DM

C. PIM-SSM

D. DVMRP

Answer: A

Explanation: Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) is a Protocol Independent Multicast

(PIM) family multicast routing protocol defined by Experimental RFC 3618. MSDP interconnects

multiple IPv4 PIM Sparse-Mode (PIM-SM) domains which enables PIM-SM to have Rendezvous

Point (RP) redundancy and inter-domain multicasting.

Reference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multicast_Source_Discovery_Protocol


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