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A branch router is configured with an egress QoS policy that was designed for a total number of
10 concurrent VOIP calls.
Due to expansion, 15 VOIP calls are now running over the link, but after the 14th call was
established, all calls were affected and the voice quality was dramatically degraded.
Assuming that there is enough bandwidth on the link for all of this traffic, which part of the QoS
configuration should be updated due to the new traffic profile?
A. Increase the shaping rate for the priority queue. B.
Remove the policer applied on the priority queue. C.
Remove the shaper applied on the priority queue. D.
Increase the policing rate for the priority queue.
Why would a rogue host that is running a DHCP server on a campus LAN network present a
A. It may allocate IP addresses from an unknown subnet to the users.
B. All multicast traffic can be sniffed by using the DHCP multicast capabilities.
C. The CPU utilization of the first hop router can be overloaded by exploiting DHCP relay open
D. A potential man-in-the-middle attack can be used against the clients.
Which statement is true about TCN propagation?
A. The originator of the TCN immediately floods this information through the network.
B. The TCN propagation is a two step process.
C. A TCN is generated and sent to the root bridge.
D. The root bridge must flood this information throughout the network.
New Topology Change Mechanisms
When an 802.1D bridge detects a topology change, it uses a reliable mechanism to first notify the
This is shown in this diagram:
Once the root bridge is aware of a change in the topology of the network, it sets the TC flag on the
BPDUs it sends out, which are then relayed to all the bridges in the network. When a bridge
receives a BPDU with the TC flag bit set, it reduces its bridging-table aging time to forward delay
seconds. This ensures a relatively quick flush of stale information. Refer to Understanding
Spanning-Tree Protocol Topology Changes for more information on this process. This topology
change mechanism is deeply remodeled in RSTP. Both the detection of a topology change and its
propagation through the network evolve.
Topology Change Detection
In RSTP, only non-edge ports that move to the forwarding state cause a topology change. This
means that a loss of connectivity is not considered as a topology change any more, contrary to
802.1D (that is, a port that moves to blocking no longer generates a TC). When a RSTP bridge
detects a topology change, these occur:
It starts the TC While timer with a value equal to twice the hello-time for all its non-edge
designated ports and its root port, if necessary.
It flushes the MAC addresses associated with all these ports.
Note: As long as the TC While timer runs on a port, the BPDUs sent out of that port have the TC
BPDUs are also sent on the root port while the timer is active.
Topology Change Propagation
When a bridge receives a BPDU with the TC bit set from a neighbor, these occur:
It clears the MAC addresses learned on all its ports, except the one that receives the topology
It starts the TC While timer and sends BPDUs with TC set on all its designated ports and root port
(RSTP no longer uses the specific TCN BPDU, unless a legacy bridge needs to be notified).
This way, the TCN floods very quickly across the whole network. The TC propagation is now a one
step process. In fact, the initiator of the topology change floods this information throughout the
network, as opposed to 802.1D where only the root did. This mechanism is much faster than the
802.1D equivalent. There is no need to wait for the root bridge to be notified and then maintain the
topology change state for the whole network for seconds.
In just a few seconds, or a small multiple of hello-times, most of the entries in the CAM tables of
the entire network (VLAN) flush. This approach results in potentially more temporary flooding, but
on the other hand it clears potential stale information that prevents rapid connectivity restitution.
Which statement is true about loop guard?
A. Loop guard only operates on interfaces that are considered point-to-point by the spanning tree.
B. Loop guard only operates on root ports.
C. Loop guard only operates on designated ports.
D. Loop guard only operates on edge ports.
Understanding How Loop Guard Works
Unidirectional link failures may cause a root port or alternate port to become designated as root if
BPDUs are absent. Some software failures may introduce temporary loops in the network. Loop
guard checks if a root port or an alternate root port receives BPDUs. If the port is receiving
BPDUs, loop guard puts the port into an inconsistent state until it starts receiving BPDUs again.
Loop guard isolates the failure and lets spanning tree converge to a stable topology without the
failed link or bridge.
You can enable loop guard per port with the set spantree guard loop command.
Note When you are in MST mode, you can set all the ports on a switch with the set spantree
global-defaults loop-guard command.
When you enable loop guard, it is automatically applied to all of the active instances or VLANs to
which that port belongs. When you disable loop guard, it is disabled for the specified ports.
Disabling loop guard moves all loop-inconsistent ports to the listening state.
If you enable loop guard on a channel and the first link becomes unidirectional, loop guard blocks
the entire channel until the affected port is removed from the channel. Figure 8-6 shows loop
guard in a triangle switch configuration.
Figure 8-6 Triangle Switch Configuration with Loop Guard
Figure 8-6 illustrates the following configuration:
Switches A and B are distribution switches.
Switch C is an access switch.
Loop guard is enabled on ports 3/1 and 3/2 on Switches A, B, and C.
Use loop guard only in topologies where there are blocked ports. Topologies that have no blocked
ports, which are loop free, do not need to enable this feature. Enabling loop guard on a root switch
has no effect but provides protection when a root switch becomes a nonroot switch.
Follow these guidelines when using loop guard:
Do not enable loop guard on PortFast-enabled or dynamic VLAN ports.
Do not enable PortFast on loop guard-enabled ports.
Do not enable loop guard if root guard is enabled.
Do not enable loop guard on ports that are connected to a shared link.
Note: We recommend that you enable loop guard on root ports and alternate root ports on access
Loop guard interacts with other features as follows:
Loop guard does not affect the functionality of UplinkFast or BackboneFast.
Root guard forces a port to always be designated as the root port. Loop guard is effective only if
the port is a root port or an alternate port. Do not enable loop guard and root guard on a port at the
PortFast transitions a port into a forwarding state immediately when a link is established. Because
a PortFast-enabled port will not be a root port or alternate port, loop guard and PortFast cannot be
configured on the same port. Assigning dynamic VLAN membership for the port requires that the
port is PortFast enabled. Do not configure a loop guard-enabled port with dynamic VLAN
If your network has a type-inconsistent port or a PVID-inconsistent port, all BPDUs are dropped
until the misconfiguration is corrected. The port transitions out of the inconsistent state after the
message age expires. Loop guard ignores the message age expiration on type-inconsistent ports
and PVID-inconsistent ports. If the port is already blocked by loop guard, misconfigured BPDUs
that are received on the port make loop guard recover, but the port is moved into the type-
inconsistent state or PVID-inconsistent state.
In high-availability switch configurations, if a port is put into the blocked state by loop guard, it
remains blocked even after a switchover to the redundant supervisor engine. The newly activated
supervisor engine recovers the port only after receiving a BPDU on that port.
Loop guard uses the ports known to spanning tree. Loop guard can take advantage of logical ports
provided by the Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP). However, to form a channel, all the physical
ports grouped in the channel must have compatible configurations. PAgP enforces uniform
configurations of root guard or loop guard on all the physical ports to form a channel.
These caveats apply to loop guard:
Which two are effects of connecting a network segment that is running 802.1D to a network
segment that is running 802.1w? (Choose two.)
A. The entire network switches to 802.1D and generates BPDUs to determine root bridge status. B.
A migration delay of three seconds occurs when the port that is connected to the 802.1D bridge
C. The entire network reconverges and a unique root bridge for the 802.1D segment, and a root
bridge for the 802.1w segment, is chosen.
D. The first hop 802.1w switch that is connected to the 802.1D runs entirely in 802.1D compatibility
mode and converts the BPDUs to either 802.1D or 802.1w BPDUs to the 802.1D or 802.1w
segments of the network.
E. Classic 802.1D timers, such as forward delay and max-age, will only be used as a backup, and
will not be necessary if point-to-point links and edge ports are properly identified and set by the
Each port maintains a variable that defines the protocol to run on the corresponding segment. A
migration delay timer of three seconds also starts when the port comes up. When this timer runs,
the current STP or RSTP mode associated to the port is locked. As soon as the migration delay
expires, the port adapts to the mode that corresponds to the next BPDU it receives. If the port
changes its mode of operation as a result of a BPDU received, the migration delay restarts.
802.1D works by the concept that the protocol had to wait for the network to converge before it
transitioned a port into the forwarding state. With Rapid Spanning Tree it does not have to rely on
any timers, the only variables that that it relies on is edge ports and link types.
Any uplink port that has an alternate port to the root can be directly placed into the forwarding
state (This is the Rapid convergence that you speak of “restored quickly when RSTP is already in
use?”). This is what happened when you disconnected the primary look; the port that was ALT,
moved to FWD immediately, but the switch also still needs to create a BDU with the TC bit set to
notify the rest of the network that a topology has occurred and all non-edge designated ports will
transition to BLK, LRN, and then FWD to ensure there are no loops in the rest of the network. This
is why if you have a host on a switchport, and you know for a fact that it is only one host, enable
portfast to configure the port as an edgeport so that it does not have to transition to all the STP
Which command is used to enable EtherChannel hashing for Layer 3 IP and Layer 4 port-based
A. mpls ip cef
B. port-channel ip cef
C. mpls ip port-channel cef
D. port-channel load balance
E. mpls ip load-balance
F. ip cef EtherChannel channel-id XOR L4
G. ip cef connection exchange
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is correct about the prefix 220.127.116.11/8?
A. The prefix has encountered a routing loop.
B. The prefix is an aggregate with an as-set.
C. The prefix has been aggregated twice, once in AS 100 and once in AS 200.
D. None of these statements is true.
Refer to the exhibit.
What is the potential issue with this configuration?
A. There is no potential issue; OSPF will work fine in any condition.
B. Sub-optimal routing may occur since there is no area 1 adjacency between the ABRs.
C. This is a wrong OSPF configuration because all routers must be in area 0 only.
D. This is a wrong OSPF configuration because /30 requires 0.0.0.3 wild card.
Refer to the exhibit.
A packet from RTD with destination RTG, is reaching RTB. What is the path this packet will take
from RTB to reach RTG?
A. RTB – RTA – RTG
B. RTB – RTD – RTC – RTA – RTG
C. RTB – RTF – RTE – RTA – RTG
D. RTB will not be able to reach RTG since the OSPF configuration is wrong.
What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community
attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?
A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.
B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.
C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.
D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.
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