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Which two statements are true about traffic shaping? (Choose two.)
A. Out-of-profile packets are queued.
B. It causes TCP retransmits.
C. Marking/remarking is not supported.
D. It does not respond to BECN and ForeSight Messages.
E. It uses a single/two-bucket mechanism for metering.
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is correct about the prefix 220.127.116.11/8?
A. The prefix has encountered a routing loop.
B. The prefix is an aggregate with an as-set.
C. The prefix has been aggregated twice, once in AS 100 and once in AS 200.
D. None of these statements is true.
Which two options does Cisco PfR use to control the entrance link selection with inbound
optimization? (Choose two.)
A. Prepend extra AS hops to the BGP prefix.
B. Advertise more specific BGP prefixes (longer mask).
C. Add (prepend) one or more communities to the prefix that is advertised by BGP.
D. Have BGP dampen the prefix.
Explanation: PfR Entrance Link Selection Control Techniques
The PfR BGP inbound optimization feature introduced the ability to influence inbound traffic. A
network advertises reachability of its inside prefixes to the Internet using eBGP advertisements to
its ISPs. If the same prefix is advertised to more than one ISP, then the network is multihoming.
PfR BGP inbound optimization works best with multihomed networks, but it can also be used with
a network that has multiple connections to the same ISP. To implement BGP inbound
optimization, PfR manipulates eBGP advertisements to influence the best entrance selection for
traffic bound for inside prefixes. The benefit of implementing the best entrance selection is limited
to a network that has more than one ISP connection.
To enforce an entrance link selection, PfR offers the following methods:
BGP Autonomous System Number Prepend When an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP) due
to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS Releases 15.2(1) T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a
best entrance for an inside prefix, extra autonomous system hops are prepended one at a time (up
to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP advertisement over the other entrances. In Cisco
IOS Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out-of policy
(OOP) due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix,
six extra autonomous system hops are prepended immediately to the inside prefix BGP
advertisement over the other entrances. The extra autonomous system hops on the other
entrances increase the probability that the best entrance will be used for the inside prefix. When
the entrance link is OOP due to unreachable or loss reasons, six extra autonomous system hops
are added immediately to allow the software to quickly move the traffic away from the old entrance
link. This is the default method PfR uses to control an inside prefix, and no user configuration is
BGP Autonomous System Number Community Prepend
When an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP) due to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS
(1)T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, a BGP prepend
community is attached one at a time (up to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP
advertisement from the network to another autonomous system such as an ISP. In Cisco IOS
Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out-of-policy (OOP)
due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, six BGP
prepend communities are attached to the inside prefix BGP advertisement. The BGP prepend
community will increase the number of autonomous system hops in the advertisement of the
inside prefix from the ISP to its peers. Autonomous system prepend BGP community is the
preferred method to be used for PfR BGP inbound optimization because there is no risk of the
local ISP filtering the extra autonomous system hops. There are some issues, for example, not all
ISPs support the BGP prepend community, ISP policies may ignore or modify the autonomous
system hops, and a transit ISP may filter the autonomous system path. If you use this method of
inbound optimization and a change is made to an autonomous system, you must issue an
outbound reconfiguration using the “clear ip bgp” command.
Refer to the exhibit.
A packet from RTD with destination RTG, is reaching RTB. What is the path this packet will take
from RTB to reach RTG?
A. RTB – RTA – RTG
B. RTB – RTD – RTC – RTA – RTG
C. RTB – RTF – RTE – RTA – RTG
D. RTB will not be able to reach RTG since the OSPF configuration is wrong.
What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community
attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?
A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.
B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.
C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.
D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.
What is the first thing that happens when IPv6 is enabled on an interface on a host?
A. A router solicitation is sent on that interface.
B. There is a duplicate address detection on the host interface.
C. The link local address is assigned on the host interface.
D. A neighbor redirect message is sent on the host interface.
Duplicate address detection (DAD) is used to verify that an IPv6 home address is unique on the
LAN before assigning the address to a physical interface (for example, QDIO). z/OS
Communications Server responds to other nodes doing DAD for IP addresses assigned to the
Which command can be used on a PE router to connect to a CE router (18.104.22.168) in VRF red?
A. telnet 22.214.171.124 /vrf-source red
B. telnet 126.96.36.199 source /vrf red
C. telnet 188.8.131.52 /source vrf red
D. telnet 184.108.40.206 /vrf red
E. telnet 220.127.116.11 vrf red
Telnetting can be done through the VRF using the Management Ethernet interface. In the
following example, the router telnets to 172.17.1.1 through the Management Ethernet interface
Router# telnet 172.17.1.1 /vrf Mgmt-intf
Refer to the exhibit.
What does the incoming interface of the above (*, G) entry indicate?
A. the interface closest to the source, according to the unicast routing table
B. the interface where an IGMP join has been received
C. the interface with the highest IP address
D. the last interface to hear a PIM (*, G) join
E. the interface closest to the RP, according to the unicast routing table
A source tree is the simplest form of distribution tree. The source host of the multicast traffic is
located at the root of the tree, and the receivers are located at the ends of the branches. Multicast
traffic travels from the source host down the tree toward the receivers. The forwarding decision on
which interface a multicast packet should be transmitted out is based on the multicast forwarding
table. This table consists of a series of multicast state entries that are cached in the router. State
entries for a source tree use the notation (S, G) pronounced S comma G. The letters represents
the IP address of the source, and G represents the group address.
Shared trees differ from source trees in that the root of the tree is a common point somewhere in
This common point is referred to as the rendezvous point (RP). The RP is the point at which
receivers join to learn of active sources. Multicast sources must transmit their traffic to the RP.
When receivers join a multicast group on a shared tree, the root of the tree is always the RP, and
multicast traffic is transmitted from the RP down toward the receivers. Therefore, the RP acts as a
go-between for the sources and receivers. An RP can be the root for all multicast groups in the
network, or different ranges of multicast groups can be associated with different RPs.
Multicast forwarding entries for a shared tree use the notation (*, G), which is pronounced star
comma G. This is because all sources for a particular group share the same tree. (The multicast
groups go to the same RP.)
Therefore, the * or wildcard represents all sources.
Additional Information from Microsoft
Multicast traffic from source 18.104.22.168 (for example) uses the RPT, meaning the source sends it
to the RP rather than to the multicast group (the router would denote this by having a (*, G) entry
rather than a (S, G) entry). Before sending this traffic, Router 1 checks its unicast routing table to
see if packets from the RP are arriving on the correct interface. In this case they are, because they
arrive on interface I1, and the packets are forwarded.
Apart from interdomain multicast routing, what else is MSDP used for?
A. Source Specific Multicast and IGMPv2
B. Announcing multicast sources to BGP speakers
C. Anycast RP
D. Intradomain multicast routing
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is correct?
A. OSPF peers are using Type 1 authentication
B. OSPF peers are using Type 2 authentication
C. Authentication is used, but there is a password mismatch
D. The OSPF peer IP address is 172.16.10.36
These are the three different types of authentication supported by OSPF.
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