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QUESTION NO:6

Why would a rogue host that is running a DHCP server on a campus LAN network present a

security risk?

A. It may allocate IP addresses from an unknown subnet to the users.

B. All multicast traffic can be sniffed by using the DHCP multicast capabilities.

C. The CPU utilization of the first hop router can be overloaded by exploiting DHCP relay open

ports.

D. A potential man-in-the-middle attack can be used against the clients.

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:12

Which two options are contained in a VTP subset advertisement? (Choose two.)

A. followers field

B. MD5 digest

C. VLAN information

D. sequence number

Answer: C,D

Explanation:

Subset Advertisements

When you add, delete, or change a VLAN in a Catalyst, the server Catalyst where the changes are

made increments the configuration revision and issues a summary advertisement. One or several

subset advertisements follow the summary advertisement. A subset advertisement contains a list

of VLAN information.

If there are several VLANs, more than one subset advertisement can be required in order to

advertise all the VLANs.

Subset Advertisement Packet Format

This formatted example shows that each VLAN information field contains information for a different

VLAN. It is ordered so that lowered-valued ISL VLAN IDs occur first:

Most of the fields in this packet are easy to understand. These are two clarifications:

Code


QUESTION NO:16

In 802.1s, how is the VLAN to instance mapping represented in the BPDU?

A. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 16-byte field in the MST BPDU.

B. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 12-byte field in the MST BPDU.

C. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 16-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.

D. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 12-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.

Answer: C

Explanation:

MST Configuration and MST Region

Each switch running MST in the network has a single MST configuration that consists of these

three attributes:

1. An alphanumeric configuration name (32 bytes)

2. A configuration revision number (two bytes)

3. A 4096-element table that associates each of the potential 4096 VLANs supported on the

chassis to a given instance.

In order to be part of a common MST region, a group of switches must share the same

configuration attributes.

It is up to the network administrator to properly propagate the configuration throughout the region.

Currently, this step is only possible by the means of the command line interface (CLI) or through

Simple Network

Management Protocol (SNMP). Other methods can be envisioned, as the IEEE specification does

not explicitly mention how to accomplish that step.

Note: If for any reason two switches differ on one or more configuration attribute, the switches are

part of different regions. For more information refer to the Region Boundary section of this

document.

Region Boundary

In order to ensure consistent VLAN-to-instance mapping, it is necessary for the protocol to be able

to exactly identify the boundaries of the regions. For that purpose, the characteristics of the region

are included in the BPDUs. The exact VLANs-to-instance mapping is not propagated in the BPDU,

because the switches only need to know whether they are in the same region as a neighbor.

Therefore, only a digest of the VLANs-toinstance mapping table is sent, along with the revision

number and the name. Once a switch receives a BPDU, the switch extracts the digest (a

numerical value derived from the VLAN-to-instance mapping table through a mathematical

function) and compares this digest with its own computed digest. If the digests differ, the port on

which the BPDU was received is at the boundary of a region.

In generic terms, a port is at the boundary of a region if the designated bridge on its segment is in

a different region or if it receives legacy 802.1d BPDUs. In this diagram, the port on B1 is at the

boundary of region A, whereas the ports on B2 and B3 are internal to region B:

MST Instances

According to the IEEE 802.1s specification, an MST bridge must be able to handle at least these

two instances:

One Internal Spanning Tree (IST)

One or more Multiple Spanning Tree Instance(s) (MSTIs)

The terminology continues to evolve, as 802.1s is actually in a pre-standard phase. It is likely

these names will change in the final release of 802.1s. The Cisco implementation supports 16

instances: one IST (instance 0) and 15 MSTIs.

show vtp status

Cisco switches “show vtp status” Field Descriptions has a MD5 digest field that is a 16-byte

checksum of the

VTP configuration as shown below

Router# show vtp status

VTP Version: 3 (capable)

Configuration Revision: 1

Maximum VLANs supported locally: 1005

Number of existing VLANs: 37

VTP Operating Mode: Server

VTP Domain Name: [smartports]

VTP Pruning Mode: Disabled

VTP V2 Mode: Enabled

VTP Traps Generation: Disabled

MD5 digest : 0x26 0xEE 0x0D 0x84 0x73 0x0E 0x1B 0x69

Configuration last modified by 172.20.52.19 at 7-25-08 14:33:43

Local updater ID is 172.20.52.19 on interface Gi5/2 (first layer3 interface fou)

VTP version running: 2

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cfc.shtml

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios-xml/ios/lanswitch/command/lsw-cr-book.pdf


QUESTION NO:20

Refer to the exhibit.

What is the potential issue with this configuration?

A. There is no potential issue; OSPF will work fine in any condition.

B. Sub-optimal routing may occur since there is no area 1 adjacency between the ABRs.

C. This is a wrong OSPF configuration because all routers must be in area 0 only.

D. This is a wrong OSPF configuration because /30 requires 0.0.0.3 wild card.

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:23

What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community

attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?

A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.

B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.

C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.

D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.

Answer: D

Explanation:


Latest 400-101 Dumps400-101 VCE Dumps400-101 Study Guide

QUESTION NO:25

Refer to the exhibit.

After a link flap in the network, which two EIGRP neighbors will not be queried for alternative

paths? (Choose two.)

A. 192.168.1.1

B. 192.168.3.7

C. 192.168.3.8

D. 192.168.3.6

E. 192.168.2.1

F. 192.168.3.9

Answer: B,C

Explanation:

Explanation

Both 192.168.3.7 and 192.168.3.8 are in an EIGRP Stub area

The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network

stability, reduces resource utilization, and simplifies stub router configuration.

Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network,

one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to

one or more distribution routers (the hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more

distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a

distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the

distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to

many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote

routers. In a hub and spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a

distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing

table. Generally, the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the

remote router.

When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature, you need to configure the distribution and remote

routers to use EIGRP, and to configure only the remote router as a stub. Only specified routes are

propagated from the remote (stub) router. The router responds to queries for summaries,

connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes with the message

“inaccessible.” A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to

all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Any neighbor that receives a packet

informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes, and a router that has a

stub peer will not query that peer. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the

proper updates to all peers.

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_0s/feature/guide/eigrpstb.html#wp1021949


QUESTION NO:36

For which routes does LDP advertise a label binding?

A. all routes in the routing table

B. only the IGP and BGP routes in the routing table

C. only the BGP routes in the routing table

D. only the IGP routes in the routing table

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:43

Which two multicast address ranges are assigned as source-specific multicast destination

addresses and are reserved for use by source-specific applications and protocols? (Choose two.)

A. 232.0.0.0/8

B. 239.0.0.0/8

C. 232.0.0.0/4

D. FF3x::/32

E. FF2x::/32

F. FF3x::/16

Answer: A,D

Explanation: Source-specific multicast (SSM) is a method of delivering multicast packets in which

the only packets that are delivered to a receiver are those originating from a specific source

address requested by the receiver. By so limiting the source, SSM reduces demands on the

network and improves security.

SSM requires that the receiver specify the source address and explicitly excludes the use of the (*,

G) join for all multicast groups in RFC 3376, which is possible only in IPv4\’s IGMPv3 and IPv6\’s

MLDv2.

Source-specific multicast is best understood in contrast to any-source multicast (ASM). In the

ASM service model a receiver expresses interest in traffic to a multicast address. The multicast

network must

1. discover all multicast sources sending to that address, and

2. route data from all sources to all interested receivers.

This behavior is particularly well suited to groupware applications where

1. all participants in the group want to be aware of all other participants, and

2. the list of participants is not known in advance.

The source discovery burden on the network can become significant when the number of sources

is large.

In the SSM service model, in addition to the receiver expressing interest in traffic to a multicast

address, the receiver expresses interest in receiving traffic from only one specific source sending

to that multicast address.

This relieves the network of discovering many multicast sources and reduces the amount of

multicast routing information that the network must maintain.

SSM requires support in last-hop routers and in the receiver\’s operating system. SSM support is

not required in other network components, including routers and even the sending host. Interest in

multicast traffic from a specific source is conveyed from hosts to routers using IGMPv3 as

specified in RFC 4607.

SSM destination addresses must be in the ranges 232.0.0.0/8 for IPv4 or FF3x::/96 for IPv6.

Reference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source-specific_multicast


QUESTION NO:44

How is RPF used in multicast routing?

A. to prevent multicast packets from looping

B. to prevent PIM packets from looping

C. to instruct PIM where to send a (*, G) or (S, G) join message

D. to prevent multicast packets from looping and to instruct PIM where to send a (*, G) or (S, G)

join message

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION NO:50

What is Phantom RP used for?

A. it is used for load balancing in bidirectional PIM

B. it is used for redundancy in bidirectional PIM

C. it is used for redundancy in PIM-SM

D. it is used for load balancing in PIM-SM

Answer: B

Explanation:

Phantom RP

In Bidirectional PIM (Bidir-PIM), the RP does not have an actual protocol function. The RP acts as

a routing vector in which all the traffic converges. The RP can be configured as an address that is

not assigned to any particular device called a Phantom RP. This means that the RP address does

not need to reside on a physical router interface, but can just be an address in a subnet. The RP

can also be a physical router, but it is not necessary.

Reference

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/iosswrel/ps6537/ps6552/whitepaper_c11-508498.html


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